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CALIFORNIA STATE MINING BUREAU /,
FERRY BUILDING, SAN FRANCISCO
FLETCHER HAMILTON Sute Mineralogisl
Mines and Mineral Resources
Del Norte County
F. McN. HAMrtTo
By F. L. LOWELL. Field AsBisUmt
State rBiNTino Ofkice
V. .,--,- >6l^V-^ *
The three counties presented herewith constitute the northernmost
coast group, being at the noirthwest comer of the State and bordering
on the Pacific Ocean. Until quite recently — in fact, subsequent to
"^^riting the body of this report — ^the only transportation connection
;;^T)el Norte and Humboldt counties had with the rest of the world was
by water. Eureka, Fort Bragg and Crescent City being the principal
ports. The Northwestern Pacific Railroad has now been completed
. through to Eureka, giving all but the extreme northern section a direct
;^rail route to San Francisco. A railroad connection to Crescent City
is at present under construction from Grant 's Pass, Oregon.
" The principal industries of this district are lumbering, dairying and
V agriculture, the mineral output, except for HumboJdt, being as yet
'small. The undeveloped mineral resources, however, are great, the
exploitation of which is dependent mainly on improved transportation
Acknowledgment is here made of assistance rendered by the various
owners of properties, both during the field woo'k and in the subsequent
preparation of this report.
Chapter I, Dbl Nortb County.
Introduction . 3
Brief Oeologric Description of Del Norte, Humboldt and Mendocino Counties 3
BualCK Sands 5
Building Materials : 9
Coal .■ 10
Chrome Iron 10
Low Divide Mining District 11
Diamond Creek District 14
Monumental District 14
French Hill District— ^_ 15
Other Districts 16
Gold '. . , 16
Placers : 16
Chapter II, Humboldt County.
Black Sands 21
Building Materials 21
Cement . 23
Limestone , 23
Horse Mountain District 26
Mattole Mining District — — 29
Natural Gas , 38
Mineral Waters 38
Chapter III, Mendocino County.
Brick and Tilb_ 45
Chrome Iron 50
Mineral Springs 52
Oil , 54
Quarries . - 55
Oro Del Norte black sands plant, showing method of hauling sands to bins 5
Oro Del Norte black sands plant, showing suction pipe line 6
Oro Del Norte black sands plant, showing revolving screen .. 6
Oro Del Norte plant, showing sand skip and track for dumping waste 7
Oro Del Norte plant, general view 8
Oro Del Norte plant, showing driftwood line 9
Map of Low Divide Mining District 11
Section of Alta California Mine 12
Monumental Mine Buildings 20
Tension curve of Humboldt Bay Cement 23
Croppings of Horse Mountain Copper Mine 24
Camp Buildings of Horse Mountain Copper Mine 25
Mill of Horse Mountain Copper Mine 26
Horse Mountain Copper Mining District Map 28
Briceland Estate Gas Well 37
Map of a portion of Humboldt County, showing oil occurrences 43
DEL NORTE COUNTY.
Field Work in August, 1913.
BRIEF GEOLOGIC DESCRIPTION OF DEL NORTE, HUMBOLDT AND
In discussing the geology of this section of the Coast Ranges, one h
confronted with the similarity of the character of the rocks of the
different geological ages and the scarcity of fossils by which the differ-
ent series of stratified rocks may be distinguished. The rocks of the
different formations have undergone such metamorphism that it is at
times difficult to detect the change from one series to another. The
Coast Range has been subject to so much disturbance that the rock
masses have been crushed and faulted out of their original stratigraphic
Beginning at the northern boundary of Sonoma County and extending
north through Mendocino, Humboldt, and Del Norte counties, the geolog-
ical structure is very regular. The rocks are mostly of Cretaceous age
and are often very much altered. Serpentine, jaspers and mica slates
are encountered in large quantities and in a very irregular manner.
There are but few areas of unaltered strata.
The general strike of the axis of the Coast Ranges through these three
counties is northwest and southeast and the preponderance of dip is
toward the southwest, the crest of the range being nearer the eastern
slope. The deep valleys have been eroded by the abundance of water
and the level valleys of some of the watersheds contain strata of Plio-
cene age. These strata are shallow, and fossils have been noted in Del
Norte and southern Humboldt counties. The Tertiary rocks are not as
prevalent as those of the Cretaceous. The latter are to be noted more
particularly in the oil field region of southwestern Humboldt County.
The South Fork of the Trinity River takes the same general northwest
direction as the other rivers of the Coast Range. Trinity River changes
its direction, flowing nearly west from Weaverville in Trinity County
to where it joins the South Fork, thence northwest through the moun-
tains to the coast. The Trinity Mountain range seems to be the joining
strip uniting the main Sierras and the Coast Range. The rocks in this
northern section become more crystalline, and the older granites which
form the nucleus of the Sierras make their appearance. This graaite
outcrops north of Humboldt Bay and thence north to the state line.
From the junction of the Klamath and Trinity rivers, extending
northward to the northern end of Del Norte County, the country is very
rugged and covered with forests. The rocks resemble those of the
Sierras and are auriferous and cupriferous. The gravels of the rivers
4 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES.
also carry gold and platinum values. In this northern region, serpen-
tine is the principal rock. Peridotite, the parent rock of serpentine, is
found exposed by erosion on Horse Mountain in northeastern Humboldt
It might be said that the greater part of the geological formations of
Mendocino, Humboldt and Del Norte counties is composed of sedimen-
tary rocks of Tertiary and Cretaceous age. There does not appear to be
a nucleus of igneous rock forming the axis of the range, although granite
does outcrop in some parts of this section. There are remains of volcanic
activity in the form of volcanic glass and tuff, and solf ataric action is
still taking place at some of the springs of southern Mendocino County.
Throughout Mendocino and southern Humboldt counties the Cretace-
ous sandstones are abundant, being very noticeable at Point Arena and
in the oil section of southwestern Humboldt. Organic remains are
absent except in a very few instances. The rocks of this age have been
altered to a considerable extent and serpentines and mica slates are the
In Del Norte County, granite forms the nucleus of the mountain
ranges and over it is a mantle of metamorphic rocks. In the western
portion of the country sedimentary rocks prevail. Intrusive serpentine
carries the copper and chrome iron deposits. Quartz occurs in small
seams and veins. Copper occurs in lenses of a rich concentration, either
as free metal or in sulphides. The slates carry many thin seams of
quartz, sometimes rich in gold, and no doubt the erosion of these forma-
tions is responsible for the gold concentrated in the streams.
This serpentine belt continues through Humboldt and Mendocino
counties. Perhaps the most noticeable occurrence is at Horse Mountain,
in Humboldt County. There the copper deposits in serpentine are
(encountered again. The country has been eroded so extensively that the
older crystalline diorites protrude through the more recent rock forma-
tions. Other acid rocks, such as quartzite, outcrop in large masses,
besides a dike of porphyry which forms a well defined contact with
serpentine. Not far from Horse Mountain on Willow Creek a large
body of limestone is exposed, having a northwest strike. It resembles
that in western Trinity County. Another limestone formation north of
Humboldt Bay is well exposed. The granite formation also outcrops
Passing south through Humboldt County and across the redwood
belt, the later formations of sandstone and shale come in. These carry
the oil and gas of this section. The formation is very badly broken up
and seepages of oil, and gas emanations are numerous. This formation
continues into Mendocino County and is most noticeable on the coast at
Point Arena. In the southern portion of Mendocino County, the
DEL NORTE COUNTY. 5
amount of alteration by the introduction of magnesian combinations is
noticeable. This is illustrated by the magnesite deposits and the minei'al
springs of that section.
Taking the three counties together, one might say that the geology is
complex, the solution of which will take considerable time and much
patience to decipher.
Almost all of the gold bearing gravels of the Smith River basin contain
black sands which carry some platinum. The beach sands also carry
values in gold and platinum. In cleaning up the sluice boxes of the
hydraulic mines after the season's washing, these black sands are col-
lected in large quantities and the platinum and gold content are found
to vary greatly in their relative proportion to each other. On French
Hill the platinum forms 5% of the total values. At Antone Kauss'
mine on Craigh's Creek pieces of coarse platinum worth up to |25 have
been found. On the Myrtle Creek Mining Company's property the
black sands are said to assay as high as $3,562 per ton in gold and
Serpentine is a prominent rock formation in the Smith River basin,
and being an alteration rock derived from peridotite which carries
platinum, seems to bear out the theory of platinum deposits in the
Outside of these river gravels and sands the only other black sand
deposit being worked in the county is on the beach 2 miles south of
Oro Del Norte Company. This company is incorporated for one mil-
lion shares at a par value of $1 per share. The company owns 255 acres
c Blick Sinds Plant, ihowine method of h.
MINES AND MINERAL RESOUBCES.
e Black Sandi Plan
DEL NOBTE COUNTY. 7
of patented ranch land along the ocean beach 2 miles south of Crescent
City. The plant is located just back of the driftwood line and consists
of a suction pipe, skip conveyer to the plant, a large area of aluminum
plates having riffles cut in them, a second area of small aluminum plates
similar to the first, a third metal plate, the composition of which is not
known, and an electrical equipment for chargit^ the plates and other
uses about the plant.
The company uses the Heintz electric flotation process for treating
the sands for their gold and platinum content. The plant requires
Oro Del Norte BUck Suid* PUnt, (howjni; Hnd >kip and track for dumping waite.
twenty-five men when in operation. Three shifts are worked and the
electric power is developed by a 200 horsepower distillate engine.
A change from the wood burning system to distillate was being made
at the time I was at the plant. A lai^er suction pipe line was also
being installed. The management claims that the new equipment will
handle 800 yards of sand every twenty-four hours.
The suction pipe is 5 inches in diameter and works on the ejector
principle. The sand is delivered from the pipe line to a revolving
screen which screens out all driftwood and large wash which is trammed
to the water's edge and dumped. The sand from the screen falls to a
bin from which it is drawn off to a 2-eubie yard skip and hauled up the
incline to the sand bins at the top of the treatment plant. Water is
MINES AND UINEBAL RESOURCES.
DEL NORTE COUNTY. 9
mixed with the sand in sufficient quantity to give it flowing properties
Pour thousand gallons of water per minute is sufScient for all purposes
about the plant, including the suction pipe line. The sand and water
is allowed to flow over the metal riflSe area at the same time an alternat-
ing current of electricity is passed through the metal plates. These
plates have a grade of 2 inches to the foot and the magnetic iron which
composes 30 to 50 per cent of the black sands is charged with electricity
and repelled, leaving the gold and platinum in a concentrated condi-
tion. These plates are hosed off every half hour, the concentrates being
washed into a sump from which they are pumped to a second set of
aluminum plates of lesser area. These plates are charged with alter-
Oro Del Norte Black Sand) PUnt, showing tbe driftwood line.
nating current also but they are made more sensitive. The same process
of elimination goes on here as before and these plates are washed off
every hour and the concentrates, still further concentrated, go to a
sump and are pumped over another metal plate, the composition of
which could not be learned.
This plate is supposed to remove the gold and platinum from the
remaining heavy minerals. The precious metals are refined and
returned as pure gold, platinum, iridium, osmium, etc.
This plant has cost $125,000, with the new equipment. Theodore B.
Heintz, president and general manager ; H. G, Stevenson, vice-president ;
and P. S. Markey, secretary. The main office is in the Merchants'
Exchange Building, San Francisco.
The local demand for building stone and brick is so small in the
county that this industry has not been developed to any appreciable
degree. A sandstone suitable for building purposes, and a clay suitable
for making brick, are found 2 miles east of Crescent City. There is a
good clay in Elk Valley, and Benjamin Ilowland is manufacturing
10 MINES AND MINERAL BESOURCES.
brick. He supplies the local demand at $14 per thousand. There is also
a deposit of good pottery clay in Elk Valley, owned by George Turner,
but it is not developed.
Small seams of lignite are found in some parts of the county, but the
one locality which has received most attention is on the beach, about 3
miles north of Crescent City. There is an outcrop of what appears to
be a tree partly converted to lignite. This tree can be plainly seen at
low water. No vein has been found. A shaft was sunk to a vertical
depth of 138 feet at a distance of 200 feet inland from the beach line,
but no coal or lignite was encountered. It is reported that borings a
thousand feet from the shore penetrated a vein that was 3 feet thick.
Very little information was available about this discovery, and no devel-
opment has been done.
Chrome iron is fairly well represented in Del Norte County. There
are several croppings in the Rattlesnake Mountains extending from the
Bald Hills to the Klamath River. The deposits are in serpentine and
are not being developed at this time. The two principal chromjB-iron
deposits worked so far in the county are owned by the TysQli Mining
Company, of Baltimore, Md.
French HUl Mines, These mines consist of two patented claims situ-
ated on French Hill, in Sees. 5 and 6, T. 16 N., R. 2 E., H. M., at an
elevation of 1750 feet. The chromite is in the form of kidneys in serpen-
tine. The deposit strikes northwest-southeast, and dips 60° NE. It is
8 feet thick at the point where the development has been done. One
hundred fifty tons of ore are on the dump, and about 200 tons were
shipped to Swansea some years ago and proclaimed excellent.
There is a wagon road 3 miles in length from the county road to the
property. The mine is owned by the Tyson Mining Company, of Balti-
more, Md. It has not been worked for some years.
Low Divide Mines. These mines, consisting of three patented claims,
are situated on Copper Creek, 1 mile from the old town of Alta, in
Sees. 33, 34, and 35, T. 18 N., R. 1 E., and about 8 miles east of Smith
River Corners, at an altitude of 1450 feet. The chromite is in serpen-
tine. An open cut exposes the vein, which is 14 feet wide. There are
about 500 tons of ore on the dump. This property is also owned by the
Tyson Mining Company, of Baltimore, Md., but is not working now.
Del Norte County has several croppings of copper ore in its northern
half, which extend easterly into Siskiyou County. The copper belt also
extends southward along the eastern side of the county and on into
DEL NORTE COUNTY.
As far as development in the past is concerned, the most prominent
districts are Low Divide in the Smith River basin, and the Dr. Rock
district in the southeastern portion of the county. Many scattering
prospects are also noted in other parts of the copper belt, such as that
on Diamond Creek, a tributary of Smith River; Monumental District,
and also at French Hill.
The principal formation is serpentine, and the copper values are gen-
erally found in it or closely associated with it. Intrusive dikes of diorite
and peridotite are common. The copper lenses appear to be more stable
where the acid rocks break through and also show a tendency to persist
in depth. The copper ore that has so far been worked, appears to be
in lenses of varying sizes and rich in copper glance, cuprite, melaconite,
malachite, and native copper. The primary ore, chalcopyrite, is not so
much in evidence in the county. Between the years 1860 and 1870,
copper ore was shipped from Del Norte to Swansea and also to Germany.
The excessive cost of transportation and lack of roads throughout the
county compelled the copper mines to close down until some future time,
when a smelter will be within reach, or railroads are built into the
LOW DIVIDE MINING DISTRICT.
This district is in the Smith River basin and is the oldest copper
camp in the county. It is situated at the head of Copper Creek, a
tributary of Rowdy Creek, at an altitude of 1780 feet. Between the
years 1860 and 1870 there was a prosperous mining town here with
several hundred inhabitants. There are only two buildings standing at
Low Divide Mining District, Del Norte County, California.
MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES.
the present time, which are occupied by a caretaker of some of the
properties. There is a wagon road from Smith River Comers, a dis-
tance of 9 miles, to the properties.
The formation is serpentine of a coarse texture and the strike of the
vein on which most of the mines are located is north and south, having
an easterly dip of from 35° to 65°. The vein swells and pinches along
its length, forming lenses. The ores consist of chalcocite, bornite, chal-
copyrite and some pyrrhotite.
Alia California Mine, This mine is owned by the Alta California
Mining Company, with offices at 519 California street, San Francisco.
The mine consists of two patented claims and these, taken with the Occi-
) first I cvel
] Third Level
3 Fourth Leyef
3 F/fth Level
Cc<iLe /oo'=' One Inch
AHa. California, Mine, Low Divide, J)f^t Norte County , Cm I.
dental group of four claims which immediately join the Alta on the
south, were bonded to the Salt Lake-California Copper Company, for-
merly known as the Union Copper Company.
Between the years 1860 and 1870 the mine was operated through an
incline shaft 455 feet deep and inclined 63° E. This shaft was served
by a steam hoist and an air compressor, but no equipment remains.
Eight hundred ninety-five feet of drifting has been done on the four
levels. The ore was shipped to Swansea and to Germany. These mines
have been closed down for many years. The mouth of the shaft has
caved. From old records it is shown that ores carrying values of 15%
to 18% copper were taken out. Ore averaging 11% was being taken out
when the mine closed down. Records of the shipments sent to Swansea
show returns of $41 to $102 per ton.
Salt Lake-California Mine, This property was formerly known as the
Union copper mine, and is owned by the Salt Lake-California Copper
Company, of Salt Lake City, Utah. It joins the Alta on the north and
DEL NORTE COUNTY. 13
consists of ten claims. Three of these claims, the Union Nos. 1, 2 and 3,
are on the extension of the Alta vein. Not far from the Alta north end
line there is a strong outcrop of gossan carrying sulphides. This gossan
extends the entire length of the two claims and fraction of 3600 feet.
This has been exposed in several cuts, and oxides assaying 25% copper
were found. There is a 60-foot tunnel and another tunnel 300 feet, both
driven across the formation in an easterly direction. From the latter
tunnel a drift 100 feet in length was run south and a raise made. A
third tunnel further north is 450 feet in length and cuts the vein at that
distance. There is a 100-foot drift south from this tunnel on the vein.
A 60-foot winze was sunk from this drift. Prom the bottom of the winze
a drift runs south 200 feet; and 17% copper ore was reported. This
was the last work done before the mine closed down. A north drift runs
from this same winze and is 240 feet in length. The 450- foot tunnel has
been extended 200 feet to cut the east vein, but did not reach it. On
Union No. 3 a vertical shaft 110 feet was sunk on the vein but no drift-
ing was done.
There is an adit level on the Big Bonanza claim, running east on an
east and west vein. This vein is 3 feet wide. This level was extended
as far as 350 feet, with hopes of cutting the main north and south vein,
but it was not found. Sixty feet below this adit level on the same claim,
a 500-foot crosscut tunnel was run to intersect the north and south vein,
but failed to locate it. Most of the old workings are badly caved. The
shaft has caved near the surface. Four hundred tons of ore from the
above 60-foot winze were said to have averaged 18% in copper and
$1.50 in gold per ton.
Superior Copper Mine. This mine was formerly known as the Atlantic
Pacific copper mine, and covers the Mammoth group of fourteen claims
Tvhich join the Union mine on the north. The character of the vein is
the same as that of the Salt Lake-California mine.
There are three tunnels on this property: No. 1, a crosscut, cutting
the west vein ; No. 2 is 150 feet below No. 1, and is also a crosscut, 700
feet long. At a distance of 150 feet from the portal, a 4-foot vein of
low-grade ore was cut which averaged about $20 per ton in copper, gold
and silver. This tunnel failed to cut the main vein. A distance of 250
feet above No. 1 tunnel, a third tunnel was run a distance of 500 feet,
and cut a vein which was 2 feet wide. The vein pinched out, however,
after some ore was shipped from it." The mine has been shut down for
Frank Zaar Copper Mine, This consists of four claims held by loca-
tion, the names being ^* Standard," formerly called Old Uanscom;
**Nome," formerly the Copper Queen; ** Discovery," formerly Lady
BeU ; and ' ' A Beauty, ' ' formerly Copper Hill. The gossan is prominent
on these claims, 4 feet wide with serpentine walls. There is a crosscut
14 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES.
tunnel on the Standard 500 feet long, which cuts a 4-foot vein carrying
values in copper, gold and silver. From this tunnel there is a drift run-
ning southwest 50 feet and a drift northwest 50 feet long, also a winze
60 feet deep. Six hundred feet below No. 1 tunnel, a second crosscut
tunnel was run 500 feet to cut the vein deeper but failed to do so. On
the **Noine" there is a 28-foot vertical shaft on the vein and an open cut
on an iron dike which is 18 feet wide. On *' Discovery" a 50-foot verti-
cal shaft was sunk. This is now caved. A crosscut tunnel 400-f eet long
failed to cut the vein. On ** A Beauty" there is a 40-foot vertical shaft
sunk on a 6-foot vein which assays 10% copper. Assessment work only
is being done on these claims.
Idora Mine. This is only a prospect consisting of three claims situ-
ated 9 miles northwest from Low Divide, owned by William Ehrman,
Yarbrough and Bricklin. Development consists of one crosscut tunnel
45 feet long, but has not reached the vein yet. There is a 30-foot incline
shaft on the vein which is dipping 45° and is 3 feet wide. Five hundred
feet along the vein has been stripped on the surface. Only assessment
work has been done.
Oriental Copper Claim. There is only one claim held by location, and
owned by E. R. Jenkins, of Crescent City. It is situated in the Low
Divide mining district, at an elevation of 1900 feet. It has a 15-foot
vertical shaft on a 4-foot vein. Only assessment work is being done.
DIAMOND CREEK DISTRICT.
Cleopatra Copper Claims. These claims are owned by James D. Lacey.
There were formerly twenty-five claims held by location and known as
the Dietrick group. Lacey lapsed in assessment work on all of the
claims except one, which he retains. The claim is in T. 18 N., R. 2 E.,
H. M., at an altitude of 2600 feet, and is close to the California-Oregon
The claim was located in 1894, and is a contact vein with serpentine
hanging and porphyry footwall. The strike is north and south and the
dip 45° E. A 100-foot crosscut tunnel with a 40-foot north drift and a
south drift of 80 feet. No. 2 crosscut tunnel is 180 feet long, and No. 3
crosscut tunnel is 130 feet long but did not cut the vein. About 200 tons
of ore are on the dump but none has been shipped. Work ceased in 1911.
Hunters Luck Claims. There are six claims in this group, held by
location since 1907. They are situated in T. 18 N., R. 3 E., at an alti-
tude of 3100 feet, and owned by J. W. Ehrman and J. N. Britten. The
vein is on the contact between serpentine hanging and porphyry foot-
wall. There are two adit levels, the upper of which is 120 feet long.
DEL NORTE COUNTY. 15
The vein as exposed in this level is 8 feet thick. The lower level is 160
feet long and the vein as exposed is 1 foot Avide. The strike of the vein
is north and south and the dip 50° E. Ehrman lives on the property
and is doing some development work. The ores are malachite, bomite
Britton No. 1 and No, 2. There are six claims in this group, held by
location since 1904, situated on Patrick Creek at an elevation of 1950
feet. The vein is quartz carrying copper and gold, and the walls are
andesite. There are three crosscuts. The third is 340 feet long. There
are 120 feet of drifts and a 60-foot winze. The strike of the vein is
southwest and northeast and dips 45° SE. Only assessment work is
Klondike Group. This group consists of Klondike Nos. 1 and 2, and
seven others located on Patrick Creek, 1 mile south of Monumental. They
were located by Luflf & Duley, of Crescent City. The vein is quartz
carrying marcasite and chalcopyrite, and is 4 feet wide. There are three
tunnels. Only assessment work is being done.
Lucky Boy and Rosebud. Property is composed of two claims held
by location, the Lucky Boy since 1901, and the Rosebud since 1902.
They are situated in T. 18 N., R. 3 E., about J mile west of the county
road, and are owned by Otto Anderson. The vein is quartz carrying
marcasite and chalcopyrite. There are three veins on the Lucky Boy,
all of which have cut the main vein, which is 4 feet wide in the upper
workings. The strike of the vein is southwest and northeast, and its dip
is southeast. There are two crosscut tunnels on the Rosebud, each 80 feet
long. One cuts the vein 17 feet from the portal, and the vein was 17 feet
wide. The vein is quartz carrying heavy iron sulphides, not much
copper, and very little gold. Only assessment work is being done.
Old Crow. Consists of four claims, namely, the Bowman, Morgan
Nos. 1 and 2, and the Jumper, all held by location since 1910, and situ-
ated in the Monumental district at an altitude of 2800 feet. They are
owned by George F. Morgan and Fred Bauman. There is a 2-foot chal-
copyrite-bearing quartz vein in porphyry. The strike of the vein is
north and south, and the dip 45° E. There are two cfosscut tunnels,
neither one cutting the vein. Only assessment work is being done.
FRENCH HILL DISTRICT.
There are several copper prospects in this district that should be
mentioned, namely —
Hendrix and Howe, consisting of five claims located in 1911, and
owned by L. T. Hendrix and George W. Howe.
Hendrix, Howe & McDonald, consisting of five claims located on
French Hill, located in 1911, and owned by L. T. Hendrix, George W.
Howe and William McDonald.
16 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES.
Frank B. Edwards, prospect situated \ mile east and 1 mile south of
Mary Adams Station, in T. 17 N., R. 2 E. There is a tunnel 30 to 40
feet long. The ore is rich glance and carries values in gold and silver.
Owned by Frank B. Edwards of Crescent City.
Preston Peak Mine, This group consists of two patented claims,
namely, the /'Hobs" and *' Copper Belt," located in 1891; and three
unpatented claims, namely, the ** Mountain King" and two others,
located in 1891. All are situated in T. 17 N., R. 5 E., at an elevation of
4400 feet. They are owned by Charles A. Leib, G. W. Young, H. Mathey
and others, of 20 Broad street, Boston, Mass. The mine is in the Siskiyou
Forest Reserve, and reached by 5 miles of wagon road and 15 miles of
trail from Waldo, Oregon. It became involved in legal difficulties and
closed down in 1901.
The country rock is diorite and serpentine, and the vein is quartz
carrying chalcopyrite, pyrite, and values in gold. The ore is in the form
of a series of lenses, having a strike of about southwest and northeast,
and stands almost vertical in the serpentine. The surface croppings
have been proven up for a distance of 200 feet. The mine is opened by
a crosscut tunnel 315 feet, and at a distance of 235 feet from the portal
a 48-foot winze in ore all the way. There was also 37 feet of drifting
done around the ore body, and 400 feet of drifting on the tunnel level
looking for more ore, but only small kidneys were found. At 650 feet
below the upper tunnel a second tunnel was run 55 feet in length, but the
work was stopped. No ore was ever shipped. The mine has not been
working for some years and the camp buildings have fallen to decay.
Doctor Rock Group, This group of copper claims, six in all, are
situated in T. 13 N., R. 3 E., H. M., at the head of Blue Creek, and
have been held since 1903. The altitude is 4475 feet. The property
is owned by Mrs. F. C. Marlowe, Cordelius Thompson, A. J. Monroe,
and F. B. Faucett. The ore is quartz carrying chalcopyrite with slate
footwall and serpentine hanging-wall. The strike is north and south
and the dip uncertain. The croppings have been proven up for a dis-
tance of 800 feet. There is a 10-foot shaft on **Big Strike" claim and
a 30-foot crosscut tunnel driven to cut this shaft failed of its purpose.
There is a 37-foot adit level on the Doctor Rock claim. The ore carries
values in gold and silver besides the copper. No ore was ever shipped
and only assessment work is being done.
Almost all the gold produced in the county comes from the placer
mines of Smith River and its tributaries. The mines are mostly small
hydraulic properties where one or two small giants are used during
DEL NORTE COUNTY. 17
the winter months. In some instances a common fire hose and nozzle
is used on the gravel banks and the water, collected from the gulches in
the rainy season, is stored in small reservoirs and piped to the gravel.
Aurora Hydraulic Mine. This property consists of two claims of
40 acres, located on French Hill, in T. 16 N., R. 1 E., at an elevation
of 1600 feet and held by location since 1907 by Prank Lind, the owner.
The gravel consists of high benches and the water supply is dependent
on flood waters from the gulches collected in a small reservoir. A
6-inch canvas hose and a 1^-inch nozzle is used to conduct the water
and wash the gravel. The gold is coarse. The mine is operated only
during the winter months when there is plenty of flood water.
Doctor Young Hydraulic Mine. Consists of four claims adjoining
J. M. DamelPs mine in the French Hill mining district in Sec. 32,
T. 17 N., R. 2 E., and owned by Dr. W. S. S. Young. There is 1 mile
of ditch bringing water under a 50-foot head to one No. 1 giant
through a 7-inch pipe. Assessment work only is being done.
Dave Savoy Placer Mine. Consists of two claims in the French Hill
mining district. The gravel is ground sluiced, the water being col-
lected in a small reservoir. Owned by Dave Savoy and worked during
the winter months.
Elkhorn Hydraulic Mine. The property consists of 2560 acres,
mostly bonded, located at the mouth of Patrick Creek, in Sec. 16, T.
17 N., R. 3 E., and controlled by the Smith River Mining Company
of Tacoma, Wash. The property is held by location since 1903 and is
at an elevation of 1050 feet. There are 3 miles of flume which brings
Avater to three No. 2 giants. There are two camps with accommoda-
tions for 25 to 30 men. Three men are now putting the flume in con-
dition to wash this winter.
French Hill Placer Mine. Situated in the French Hill mining district,
in Sees. 32 and 33, T. 17 N., R. 2 E., at an elevation of 1800 feet. There
are nineteen claims, covering 380 acres, held by location since 1898 and
owned by J. M. Darnell. The property is a bench mine and has 5 miles
of ditch carrying 500 inches of water from Craigh Creek, and has a 150-
foot face. Two No. 2 giants are used, and about 5% of the values are
George Washington Placer Claims. These claims are situated on
Monkey Creek adjoining the Elkhorn hydraulic mine, and taken together
with the Monkey Creek mine, make 480 acres of gravel which have been
bonded to the ** Winnie Bob" Mining Company, capitalized for 1,000,000
shares in the State of Washington. The property is to be equipped with
a hydraulic plant soon, but only assessment work is now being done.
18 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES.
George Cook Placer Mine. This mine consists of five claims located
3 miles south of Gasquet on the middle fork of Smith River. It has
4 miles of ditch and one No. 3 giant. The water is brought from Hum-
boldt Flat watershed. During the winter months 300 to 400 miner's
inches are obtained. The claims are not patented. Considerable coarse
gold and some platinum is obtained.
Kaus Placer Mine, Situated in Craigh Creek mining district in Sec. 1,
T. 16 N., R. 1 E., and owned by Antone Kaus. Two claims have been
held by location for the last forty years. The gravel benches are ground-
sluiced, the water coming through a J mile ditch, giving a 30-foot fall. A
6-inch pipe and a 6-inch canvas hose bring the water to the gravel.
A 2-inch nozzle is used. The gold and platinum are coarse, and worked
during the winter months.
Myrtle Creek Hydraulic Mine. Situated in the Myrtle Creek mining
district, in Sees. 3, 4 and 10, T. 16 N., R. 1 E., at an elevation of 260 feet,
this mine is owned by the Myrtle Creek Placer Mining Company of
Crescent City. The property consists of eighteen claims, or 360 acres.
The gravel benches are washed by water taken from a li-mile ditch,
with a head of 75 feet. Eleven-inch pipe, with one No. 2 and one No. 3
giant, is used. The gold assays $18.50 to $19 per ounce. The black
sands carry platinum in considerable quantity.
Monkey Creek Placer Mine. Situated in the Monkey Creek mining
district and held by location since 1893, are seven claims owned by J. A.
Haight and D. Haight. The gravel benches are ground-sluiced, -the
water coming through 1^ miles of ditch from Monkey Creek. The dam
has collapsed and no work outside of assessment work is now being done.
Nels Christ ensen Hydraulic Mine. This property is situated 300
yards from the forks of Smith River and consists of 34 acres of bench
gravel, held by location since 1885 and owned by Nels Christensen of
South Fork. There is a 1^-mile ditch carrying 500 inches of water
with a 75-foot fall through 9 and 12-inch pipe to a No. 2 giant.
Oak Flat and East Fork Groups. This property consists of 270
acres located in the Patrick Creek mining district at an elevation of
1430 feet, and is owned by a party of eight people (S. P. Raymond,
D. E. Raymond, A. E. Newman, A. E. Newman, Jr., C. Newman, J. W.
Ehrman, and Homer White). The mine consists of 270 acres of bench
and creek gravels. Water is brought from Shelly and Patrick creeks
through 3 miles of flume and ditch with a head of 650 feet. One No. 2
giant is used. The ditch is built for IJ miles and the remainder is now
Walter Crook Hydraulic Mhie. This property adjoins Dave Savoy
on French Hill in the French Hill mining district. It consists of
DEL NORTE COUNTY. 19
three claims owned by Walter Crook and held by location. There is
1 mile of ditch taking water from Allen Gulch, a tributary of Craigh
Creek, through a 7-inch pipe to a No. 1 giant. "Worked during the
winter months only.
The output of gold from Del Norte County is due entirely to the
placer mines, the production from the quartz mines being nil. Most of
the ores from the quartz veins of the county are base and require con-
centration and shipment. The transportation facilities are so poor that
development of quartz properties is hindered. Only assessment work is
being done on such prospects at present.
Black Diamond Gold Quartz Mine, This mine is at an altitude of
6500 feet, and is nearly on the eastern boundary of the county, about
8 miles from the Doctor Rock mine. It consists of four claims located
in T. 14 N., R. 4 E., H. M., and held by location by L. T. Hendrix. The
vein, which is quartz, has a north and south strike and dips 70° E.
Trap rock forms the hanging-wall, while the footwall is composed of
shale. The ore is base and carries gold and silver values. The vein has
been trenched, but no work further than assessment has been done.
Hard Luck Mine, This mine consists of six claims situated on Monkey
Creek in the Monumental mining district and held by location since 1904
by J. N. Britton, of Waldo, Oregon. The vein is quartz carrying gold
and arsenical sulphides. The development consists of two crosscut tun-
nels and 400 feet of drifts. Five tons of ore were shipped to the Selby
smelter and are said to have assayed $10.40 per ton in gold. Only
assessment work is being done.
Monumental Consolidated Quartz Mine, This property consists of
eight claims of 165.28 acres, located in T. 18 N., R. 3 E., in the Monu-
mental mining district, held by location since 1901 by the J. 0. B. Gunn
estate and Davis. The mine is at an elevation of 2560 feet. The vein
is quartz, carrying specular iron with gold values and some copper.
There is a 3-compartment vertical shaft 212 feet deep and an incline
shaft to the 100-foot level from the ether shaft. There is f of a mile
of drifts, an upraise from the 100-foot level to the surface and a winze
from the 100-foot level. There are six prospect tunnels from 30 to 40
feet long. The ore is crushed in a Huntington mill and concentrated
on a Frue vanner and Pender table, and the concentrates were formerly
shipped to Selby. Power for the mill is furnished by water under 150-
foot head through a 6-inch pipe acting on two Pelton wheels. The
winding engine was run by steam and a Cameron shaft pump used to
unwater the shaft. The camp consists of a store, bunkhouse, cookhouse,
office, laboratory and barn, which are now in charge of a caretaker.
20 MINES AND MINERAL RESOUKCES.
The mine has been closed down for several years and the camp is a
convenient stopping place for travelers over the main highway from
Oregon to Crescent City.
Ora Anna Quartz Mine. This property consists of one patented
and three unpatented claims, owned by the Ora Anna Quartz Mining
Company of Crescent City. It is situated in T. 16 N,, R. 1 E., in the
Bald Hills mining district, at an elevation of 1400 feet. There are two
parallel veins between slate hanging-wall and hard porphyry footwall,
and the vein filling is quartz carrying gold, both free and in the sul-
phide. The average width of the vein is 6 feet, and the strike is east
Hoaumenul Hiae buildiasi » Monumcnlal, Del Norte County, CalifotnU.
and west, with a dip of 45° to the north. There is a tunnel 300 feet long
from which a winze 70 feet deep has been sunk. There is an upper
tunnel 40 feet in length. The equipment amounts to very little and
one cabin remains on the property. Since 1897 only a-ssessmsnt work
has been done.
Quicksilver in small quantities has been found in the northern part
of the county in T. 18 N., R. 2 E., H. M., and also on Diamond Creek, a
tributary of Smith River. Poor transportation facilities prevent
HUMBOLDT COUNTY. 21
Field Work in September, 1913.
In former years the black sands of the beach and bluffs of northern
Humboldt County were successfully worked at Upper and Lower Gold
Bluffs, Big Lagoon, and Little River. The gold was fine and was saved
by the use of the Oregon tom and ordinary tom and amalgamating
plates. After a severe storm on the coast, the fine gold could plainly
be seen concentrated on the beach in places. After the tide had
receded, pack mules were taken down and the sand packed away in
sacks for washing. Many thousands of dollars were taken out in this
manner but for some reason the gold does not concentrate in paying
quantities now and this method of collecting the sands has been
abandoned. At Upper Gold Bluffs, a tunnel through the range of hills
dividing Prairie Creek and the coast was cut one-half mile in length to
bring water from Prairie Creek for washing the sands and gravels. The
locators of these beach claims became involved in litigation with locators
of the land as timber claims and mining has been abandoned and the
plant is in ruins. The sands and gravels of Klamath River carry a good
percentage of black sands having a gold and platinum content and
some of the hydraulic mines are losing considerable of their values,
which are carried away in the heavy gray and black sands which
quickly clog the undercurrent riffles and cause an overflow of concen-
trates and values. They are desirous of finding a cheap method by
which these sands can be worked continuously in connection with the
ordinary hydraulic operations, thereby not only saving the values but
also saving much lost time used up in clearing the riffles of the trouble-
some sands. Outside of the black sands encountered in the hydraulic
diggings, there are no other sands that are being worked in the county
at the present time. The gold and platinum are too fine and not in suffi-
cient quantity to pay for working with the appliances available at
Brick and Tile. There are only two companies in Humboldt County
who manufacture brick or tile and they are able to supply the local and
county demand. The Fortuna brickyard at Fortuna formerly owned
by J. A. Thompson has been closed down and Mr. Thompson is now
interested in the Eureka Brick and Tile Company of Eureka.
Eureka Brick and Tile Company. John A. Thompson and John
Porter own four acres of clay land in the suburbs of the city of Eureka.
The plant consists of one stiff mud brick and tile machine, one mixing
22 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES.
machine, one grinding machine, one cut-off machine, one 70 horsepower
engine, one boiler, one 300-barrel and one lOO-barrel oil tank, water
tank, scrapers and clay cars. Oil is used as fuel and the plant has a
capacity of 25,000 brick per day. They make tile 3 to 12 inches in size
and sell their brick at $10 per thousand at the plant. Tiling is sold at
2 cents per foot for 3-inch size up to 15 cents per foot for 12-inch size.
This tile is used principally in land drainage.
Humboldt Clay Manufacturing Company. Lewis H. Hess, president,
and W. Ernest Dickson, secretary, of Eureka. They own If acres
of clay land adjoining the Eureka Brick and Tile Company in the
suburbs of Eureka. The plant consists of one American Clay Machin-
ery Company clay machine, one mixing machine, one disintegrator, one
re-press, one cutoff machine, one 100 horsepower engine, two boilers,
one oil tank (500 barrels). They sell the brick at $10 per 1000 at the
yard and have a capacity of 25,000 brick per day.
There is an excellent blue clay on Jacoby Creek owned by J. A. Moore
which is well adapted for the manufacture of brick. Nothing is being
done with the clay at the present time.
The only quarries in the county are those being operated for the pur-
pose of obtaining rock to be used in building the jetty at the mouth of
Humboldt harbor and for road metal.
Haw Quarry. This quarry is owned by G. A. Dungan and I. M.
Long, and is situated in Sec. 21, T. 5 N., R. 1 E., Humboldt meridian,
and 6 miles from Eureka, at an elevation of 150 feet. There are 700
acres. The rock is a basaltic lava termed tachylite (Lawson). The
plant consists of one mile of standard gauge railroad which connects
with Humboldt Bay. There is one locomotive and eleven bottom dump
cars, one barge, one tow boat, one air compressor, two Sullivan air
drills, one No. 3 gyratory crusher, one 12-foot screen, drill tools, etc.
The buildings consist of a cookhouse, blacksmith shop, powder house
and several smaller buildings. Electricity is purchased at 2 cents per
kilowatt hour. The capacity is 400 tons per ten hours. The rock is
hauled by rail one mile to the bay and loaded on barges and towed to
Eureka. The specific gravity of the rock is 3.169 and contains 42.7 per
cent silica. The rock is used for road metal and for filling.
Jacoby Creek Quarry. This quarry is leased by the Pacific Engineer-
ing and Construction Company of San Francisco, S. L. G. Knox, presi-
dent. The quarry is 5 miles from Areata and the equipment consists of
5 derricks, 90 cars, 3 barges and 1 tug, one 4-drill compressor, 4 com-
pressed air drills, 1 drill sharpener, 2 hoisting cranes and the necessary
drill steel. This company has the contract for furnishing the fill for the
harbor jetty now being built. The rock is a meta-morphic sandstone
and one quarry is a mica schist. This company is supplying the rock
for the construction of the jetty at the entrance of Humboldt harbor.
Isaac Minor Quarry, This quarry consists of granite suitable for
building purposes and is situated on Warren Creek which is a tributary
of Mad River in T. 6 N., R. 1 E. Although the rock is suitable for
building purposes, yet granite used in the county for such purposes as
monuments is imported from other parts of California. There is so
little construction going on in the county that requires a good building
stone that the quarries, or rather the prospective quarries, have not
been developed. The only rock being used at present is that used for
road metal and for the federal work on the harbor jetty.
A cement manufactured from a limestone cropping on Jacoby Creek
in Sees. 13 and 14, T. 5 N., R. 1 E., on the property of the Bayside
Lumber Company has been tested and an analysis made by Smith-
Emery & Company of San Francisco, and the following facts as shown
by this tension curve, obtained:
■\ . .
HUMBOLDT BP\Y CtMElNT
R law I nam Oxide 649
ferric Oxide Z93
Calcium Ox fde 6Z.2Z
Ma^n tsium Oxide 1 Z3
Sulphur Tri oxide / .60
1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 ■ 1 J t
There is considerable limestone in the county suitable for burning
for lime and also for fertilizer and smelter flux. The most accessible
deposits to Humboldt Bay are on Jacoby Creek in Sees. 13 and 14,
T. 5 N., R. 1 E., on the property of the Bayside Lumber Company.
It is 3 miles from the bay and on the railroad. There is also another
24 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES.
deposit on Jacoby Creek owned by J. A. Moore of Blue Lakes, Hum-
boldt Couoty. The analysis by the Miller & Brown Company of Sau
Francisco gives the following results:
Analyil* of Lrmestone from Jacoby Creek.
Iteceived from Stale Mining Bureau, 1 piece of rock for analysis.
Sample found to contaiD tbe following :
Silica, SiO, 1.41%
Lime, CaO ra.61%, CaO.CO, 95.74
Iron oxide— Fe,0. .35
Alumina — Al.O, .66
MaKnesia — MgO Trace
Residue from carbonaceous matter .50
Volatile. CO,, H,0, etc. = 42.40 per cent.
There is a large dike of limestone crossing in a northwesterly direc-
tion from Trinity County to Humboldt County in T. 4 N., R. 5 E., which
extends northwesterly and passes to the east of Horse Mountain and
cuts across Willow Creek. This limestone formation has not been
developed and is a source of immense quantities of good limestone.
There is also considerable limestone in the southeastern section of the
county which haa not been developed.
The copper belt of Humboldt County, as far as development to date
has proved, extends along the eastern part of the county, east of the
redwood belt and extending from the southern end of Del Norte County
south for the entire length of Humboldt County and over into the
HUMBOLDT COUNTY. 25
parts of western Trinity County difficult of access. The copper of
Humboldt Couuty, like that of Del Norte Comity, is aasociated with
serpentine. There are dikes of quartzite and diorite protruding
through the serpentine iu many instances and also the mother rock of
serpentine, called peridotite, is encountered in a more or less altered
The principal district where copper mining is being done at the
present time is Horse Mountain, situated in T. 5 and 6 N., R. 4 E.
The ore on the mountain seems to be of a secondary nature, consisting
Camp building* of the Hortc Hountiin Copper Mining Company, on Hone Mountain.
Humboldt Counlr, Cfalifornia.
of bunches of impregnated serpentine close to the surface, in which the
values run high in copper glance, bornite, native copper, and malachite.
The general strike of the formation is northwest and southeast, with
a dip to the northeast. The formation is mostly serpentine, porphyry
and gabbro, the latter having peridotite closely associated with it, from
the decomposition of which the serpentine is formed. Chrome iron is
also encountered in small quantities in the serpentine.
There are quartz and diorite dikes protruding through these forma-
tions all seeming to have a northwest and southeasterly direction and
a northeast dip.
Next to Horse Mountain, the district where copper development has
been done to a considerable extent is Red Cap Creek. Several Copper
26 HtNES AND MINERAL RESOURCES.
companies, namely the "Red Cap," "La Perin" have held claims on
the ridge between Boise and Red Cap creeks and have done considerable
work. Much rich copper ore has been found in the slides from the hiUe
but the ore has never been found in place. No development is being
done at the present time and the old tunnels have caved in and the
buildings gone to ruin.
Nothing in the way of development is being done on Lassen Creek in
T. 1 S., R. 4 E., or on the Rainbow or Crimson groups, in T. 1 S., R. 1 E,,
in the Mattole raining district.
HofM MounUin DKtrlct.
Horse Mountain Copper Mine. This property consists of ten groups
of claims, making 70 claims in all. They are unpatented and are situ-
ated on Horse Mountain in Sees. 33 and 34, T. 6 N., R. i E., aBd
Sees. 3 and 4, T. 5 N., R. 4 E., at an altitude of 5000 feet. The prop-
erty is owned by the Hoi-se Mountain Copper Company, which is a
t, Humboldt Count
HUMBOLDT COUNTY. 27
stock company. The railroad from Eureka runs to within 25 miles of
the mine and this distance is covered by a good wagon road. The
original claims were located by Dave Wilson in 1907. The strike of the
formation is northwest and southeast and dips about 40° NE. There
are six crosscut tunnels and one adit level, also some open cuts. There
is 3000 feet of underground development, mostly drifts and crosscuts.
Steam supplies the power for the sawmill and two Huntington mills
(one being 3 J and the other 5 feet). It also furnishes power for a
Blake ore crusher, two Dodge secondary crushers, one Standard and
one United concentrating table and two classifiers. Twenty-six men
are employed underground and on the surface. Some concentrates
have been shipped to Humboldt Bay but have not reached the smelter.
The middlings are stored for future treatment. The concentrates
average 20% copper and the middlings about f % copper. The values
in gold are about $4 per ton for the concentrates. A 16 h.p. Corliss
distillate engine furnishes power for ventilating. Two 50 h.p. boilers,
one 14 h.p. engine, one 20 h.p. engine and one 40 h.p. engine complete
the power equipment.
The surface equipment consists of one sawmill with a capacity of
7000 feet, one blacksmith shop, one timber framing shop, barn, cook-
house, office, assay office, powder magazines and several bunk houses,
making 35 buildings in all. Scraps from sawmill used for fuel.
Humboldt Copper Mine, This mine consists of eight claims or 160
acres, unpatented ground, which adjoins the Horse Mountain Copper
mine on the southwest and lies in Sees. 28 and 29, T. 6 N., R. 4 E,
and Sees. 32 and 33, T. 6 N., R. 4 E., at an altitude of 4800 feet.
A wagon road is 25 miles from Korvel to the mine. The mine is owned
by the Humboldt Copper Mining Company of Eureka, T. L. Loof-
bourrow, president, and Kenneth Newett, Jr., secretary. The original
claims were located in 1905. The country rock is mostly serpentine
with dikes of porphyritic diorite and granodiorite. The ores consist of
chaicopyrite, chalcocite, cuprite, and free copper. The strike is north-
west and southeast and the dip 45° to the northeast. The underground
workings consist of three crosscut tunnels, 25, 100 and 700 feet, respec-
tively. There are 750 feet of drifts, 20 feet of winze and 210 feet of
raise. Assessment work only is being done and no ore has been shipped.
The surface buildings consist of a cook house, bunk house and black-
Sweet Home Copper Mine. This property consists of eight claims of
160 acres of unpatented land adjoining the Horse ]\Iountain mine
and lies in Sec. 28, T. 6 N., R. 4 E., at an altitude of 4800 feet. The
property is owned by the Sweet Home Mining Company of Eureka,
E. P. Shier, president. A 'wagon road crosses the property and is
within 1000 feet of the main workings. The ores are the same as those
MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES.
Horse Mountain Copper Hining Diitrict. Humboldt Counl7, Califomu.
of the Horse Mountain mine. The strike is east and west and the dip
45° N. There are four crosscut tunnels and 230 feet of drifts. The
company is doing assessment work only and some ore has been shipped
for a test. The ores are chalcocite, bornite, cuprite and native copper.
The surface equipment consists of a bunk house, cook house and a
Ruby Copper Mine. This property consists of thirty-eight claima or
760 acres of unpatented land situated to the northwest of the Horse
Mountain Copper mine in Sees. 16, 21 and 28, T. 6 N., R. 4 E., at
an altitude of 4500 feet. These claims are owned by the Ruby Copper
Mining Company of Eureka, E. A. Walters, president, and Prank "W.
HUMBOLDT COUNTY. 29
Belcher, secretary. There is a wagon road to the mine. The original
claims were located in 1907 and consist of the Blind Lead Group and
the Euby Group. Serpentine with dikes of porphyritic diorite and
quartzite makes up the formation and the ores are the same as those
of the Horse Mountain mine. The strike is northwest and southeast
with a vertical dip. The underground workings consist of a crosscut
tunnel 510 feet long and 250 feet of drifting. A small 60-foot shaft
from the surface is also sunk.
The surface buildings consist of a cook house, bunk house, blacksmith
shop, and a timber shed. The mine is in a developing stage and the
ores consist of chalcopyrite, cuprite, chalcocite, and bomite. There are
also some black oxide ores and some gold values are obtained.
Mattole Mining District.
Rainbow Group. This copper prospect, consisting of nineteen claims,
is located sixty miles south of Eureka in Sees. 19, 30 and 32, T. 1 S.,
R. 1 E., and also in Sees. 12 and 19, T. 1 S., R. 1 W. Several trencher
have been cut across the vein matter and some carbonate ore has been
opened up for several hundred feet along the strike of the croppings.
No work has been done on this group of claims for some time.
Crimson Group. This group of copper claims, consisting of 80 acres
of patented land, joins the Rainbow group of mines on the south, and
is in Sec. 8, T. 2 S., R. 1 E. Several prospect holes have been sunk
over the 80 acres and carbonate ore has been found. No work has been
done on the property for some years.
There are indications of lignite seams in several parts of the county,
including the following places :
East branch of north fork of Eel River.
Near Mrs. Ray 's house at Garberville.
Van Dusen River, two miles east of Hydesville.
Crogan Gulch, Maple Creek.
Buck Mountain Creek, near Garberville.
Coal is also found at the following places in the county :
On the east branch of the north fork of Eel River. .
Ten miles from Garberville.
Two miles north of Areata.
On the upper Mattole River.
On Larribee Creek.
30 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES.
Some of this coal has been burned in a blacksmith forge and found
to be saiisfactory. The seams, however, are not wide and this taken
together with the cost of transportation and the cheapness of oil fuel,
prohibits the development of these coal and lignite seams.
The gold production of Humboldt County is not large, being only
$31,271 for the year 1912 (California State Mining Bureau Bulletin 65).
This gold comes from the placer mines in the northeastern part of the
county, on the Klamath Eiver from the Hoopa Indian Reservation to the
eastern county line and from the south end of the reservation southward
along the Trinity River to the east line of the county. There are also
two quartz mines that are being developed, but without any production
as yet. One is on Red Cap Creek, which is a tributary of Klamath
River, and the other is at the headwaters of Willow Creek, which is a
tributary of Trinity River.
Red Cap Mine (quartz). Consists of ten quartz and three placer
claims, all unpatented and owned by a stock company called the Red
Cap Mining Company of Eureka, Humboldt County. The claims are
located in Sec. 33, T. 10 N., R. 6 E., on the north fork of Red Cap
Creek at an elevation of 2640 feet above sea level. These claims have
been held since 1899. The country rock is porphyry with diorite dikes
intersecting the formation. There are four veins being worked at the
present time. The ore in the upper levels is free milling and in the
lower levels it is a heavy sulphide carrying some copper. The strike is
northeast and southwest and dips 70° to the northwest. There are three
tunnels and 280 feet of drifts ; also a 4- foot crosscut tunnel which is the
lowest working tunnel and is only 45 feet in length. There are 100 feet
of raises and 30 feet of winze. The mine equipment consists of the usual
strap iron tunnel track, one ore car, blacksmith shop, hand steel, etc.
The reduction equipment consists of a Gardner crusher, one Prue
vanner concentrator, and amalgamating plates. There is also a wire
aerial tramway from the upper tunnels to the ore bin at the crusher.
The mine is only developing and no ore is being shipped.
Bonneyville Quartz Mine. Consists of six claims and a fraction of
130 acres of unpatented land owned by the Bonneyville Mining Com-
pany of Eureka, F. E. Peaslack, secretary, and Charles Helwig, presi-
dent. The claims are located in Sec. 15, T. 6 N., R. 4 E., at the head
of Willow Creek, which is a tributary of Trinity River, and at an
elevation of 1640 feet. The claims have been held since 1912. The
country rock is slate and porphyry. The veins are all in slate with the
exception of one which is a contact vein, the contact being slate and
porphyry. The strike of the formation is northwest and southeast and
dips northeast about 30°. There are four adit levels with 15, 15, 20 and
HUMBOLDT COUNTY. 31
375 feet of drifting done on them respectively. There are two cross-
cuts, one 15 feet and one 35 feet, 375 feet of track of strap iron, one
ore car and the necessary drill steel. There are two cabins on the
property and a road was being built from the county road to the
property. A water right of 300 inches also belongs to the property.
Little Klondike Mine, Consists of three placer claims • and four
quartz claims owned by F. Lubbs of Orleans, which adjoin the Red Cap
mine at the head of Red Cap Creek. The quartz vein has prophyry
walls and is very irregular in width. It frequently carries high values
in free gold and in other places traces of capper are found. There is
one mile of ditch and a cabin on the place. Only assessment work is
Quartz Prospect on Pearch Creek. This prospect is on Pearch Creek,
2 miles from its mouth and 3 miles from Orleans. It consists of one
claim on a vein which is 6 to 14 inches in width in schist formation.
It carries free milling quartz which is crushed with an arrastra which
is run by water power. The vein is inclined to be pockety and the gold
is rather light, going $14 to the ounce. This prospect works in winter
Placer mining in the county is confined to the Klamath and Trinity
rivers, and the season varies from a few days (as in the case of the high
gravel banks) to several months during the winter for the lower bars,
where water can be ditched to the property.
Allen Mine (hydraulic). Consists of two unpatented claims owned
by A. H. Allen of Orleans and located in Sec. 15, T. 10 N., R. 5 E.,
at the mouth of Red Cap Creek at an elevation of 460 feet. These
claims have been held since 1898. They consist of bench gravels on a
slate bedrock. There are 3.4 miles of ditch, 1000 feet of 11-inch pipe
and one No. 2 giant served by 400 inches of water under a head of 80
feet. The gold is saved by block riffles, undercurrent and quicksilver.
The mine works five months during the winter. The gold mints $17
per ounce and has platinum associated with it in small amounts.
Bo^ido Mine (hydraulic). Consists of two claims of 40 acres,
formerly known as Croton Bar Mine and Markeson Mine, and owned
by Morris Bondo of San Diego. The property is located in Sec. 29,
T. 11 N., R. 6 E., on the Klamath River, 1^ miles up the river from
Orleans. They consist of bench gravels, some of the gravel being
cemented. The bedrock is rough slate, the strata standing on end.
There are one mile of ditch and flume, 1400 feet of 22-inch, 18-inch,
15-inch and 11-inch pipe, two reservoirs and two No. 2 giants. There are
800 feet of sluice and the gold is saved by block riffles and quicksilver.
32 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES.
There are a house, blacksmith shop, bam, powder house and a derrick
on the property. The gold mints $17.10 per ounce and the gold is
about the size of wheat.
Cavanaugh Mine (hydraulic). Consists of one claim of 20 acres
owned by C. A. Sample of 1202 I street, Fresno. It is located in Sec. 1.
T. 9 N., Ev 4 E., on the Klamath River, about 3 miles above Weitchpec,
at an elevation of 550 feet. This claim was located in 1870 and has
changed hands several times. The bedrock is an altered schist and
the course of the channel is east and west. The property has 900
feet of ditch and brings 300 inches of water from Boulder Creek at a
head of 90 feet. One No. 1 giant with 11-inch pipe is used. Block
riffles with quicksilver and no undercurrent. The gold assays $18
per ounce. There are two houses, one blacksmith shop and a bam on
the property. Work is done only during the winter months.
Clover Flat Placer Mine. Consists of 170 acres of patented mineral
land and 173 acres of unpatented land owned by the Clover Flat Gold
Mining Company of which F. B. Herrick is president and L. B. Camp-
ton is secretary. The mine is located in Sees. 17 and 20, T. 7 N., R. 5 B.,
on the Trinity River about one mile north of the village of Willow
Creek (sometimes called China Flat) at an elevation of 675 feet.
The claims were located in 1870 and worked most of the time up
to 1912. The bedrock is slate and the course of the channel is north
and south. The property has 2^ miles of ditch which brings 2500 inches
of water under a 175-foot pressure. The gravel is heavy wash. Block
riffles, undercurrent and quicksilver are used for saving the gold. The
equipment consists of 1000 feet of 22, 18, 15, 13 and 11-inch pipe, Qne
No. 2 and one No. 3 giant, 400 feet of sluice, one reservoir covering an
acre of ground and another reservoir a little less than an acre in area.
A derrick is used for moving large boulders. The gold assays $18
per ounce. The gravels contain a large percentage of heavy black and
gray sands^ which cause considerable trouble in the riffles and under-
current by clogging up and causing the gold to flow over. There
is one third as much platinum as gold content. The mine has shut down
until such time as some appliances are found for saving the gold and
platinum contained in the heavy sands.
Flore7ice Placer Min£, Consists of coae claim of 20 acres of un-
patented mineral land owned by J. E. Middlesworth and located in
Sec. 31, T. 10 N., R. 5 E., on the Klamath River a little over 3 miles
above Weitchpec, at an elevation of 570 feet. This claim was located
in 1907 by J. B. Middlesworth, and has been worked ever since during
the winter months. There is a good raad to a point on the river opposite
the mine. The bedrock is an altered schist. The gravel is a medium
wash and the course of the channel is northeast and southwest. There
HUMBOLDT COUNTY. 33'
are 340 feet of ditch which carries 300 inches of water at a 40-foot pres-
sure. Split riflBes are used in saving the gold. A 7-inch pipe and
canvas hose are used for conveying the water to a 2J-inch brass nozzle.
The gold is scaly. It assays $18 per ounce. There is one cabin on
the property and a pipe shed.
Klamath River Hydraulic Mine, Consists of fourteen claims or 280
acres of unpatented mineral land formerly known as the A. D. Miller
mine and owned by the Klamath River Mining Company. The mine is
located in Sec. 1, T. 9 N., R. 4 E., and Sec. 6, T. 9 N., R. 5 B., in
the Weitchpec mining district and about 3 miles north of the village of
Weitehpec, on the Klamath River. The elevation is 550 feet. These
claims have been held since 1860. Good roads to the mine from the
coast, also from Orleans. There are two miles of flume which brings
1500 inches of water under a pressure of 200 feet. The gravel benches
bave a northeast and southwest direction and the bedrock is an altered
schist. The gravel is a medium wash and carries no cement gravel. The
claims were located in 1860. An 18-inch pipe serves a No. 4 giant and
16-inch pipe for a No. 3 giant. The present company has been operating
for the past three years. The gold assays $18 per ounce.
Orcutt Hydraulic Mine. Consists of one claim called the Indian
Jack and owned by Ira Orcutt and located in Sec. 29, T. 11 N.,
B. 6 E., in the Orleans mining district about 2 miles northeast of the
town of Orleans. The claim is unpatented and lies at an altitude of
500 feet. These claims were located in 1891 by Orcutt and have been
worked every winter since. The bench gravels have a northeast and
southwest direction and the bedrock is slate. There is a ditch 3 miles
long that brings 500 inches of water under 150 feet pressure; 500 feet
of 11 and 9 inch pipe conducts the water to one No. 2 giant.
Orleans Bar (hydraulic). Consists of 1300 acres of patented mineral
land and about 600 acres of unpatented land owned by the California
Mining and Dredging Syndicate and located in Sec. 1, T. 10 N.,
R. 5 E., Sees. 25 and 36, T. 11 N., R. 5 E., Sees. 30 and 31, T. 11 N.,
R. 6 E., on the Klamath River at the town of Orleans at an altitude of
376 to 3300 feet above sea level. The years of location of the different
claims are not given. The gravels are bench gravels, some being high
benches and other low benches. There is a good road to the property,
completed during the summer of 1912. The claims are on the Klamath
i^orest Reserve, and the tailings are dumped into the river. There is
a report on the property made by H. DcC. Richards, E.M. Water
is brought from Camp Creek, Wilder Creek and other creeks and there
are 10 miles of flumes and ditches which carry 2000 inches of water that
can be delivered under a head of 400 feet. The course of the channel
is northeast and southwest and the bedrock is slate and serpentine.
34 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES.
The slate is stratified with quartz seams. The mine is equipped with
reservoirs and also has 3000 feet of 18-inch and 11-inch pipe and four
giants, namely, one No. 3, two No. 4 and one No. 5. There are two
sawmills, four blacksmith shops, store, bam and two dwelling houses.
There is also a machine shop with a complete equipment of tools.
Block riffles and undercurrent with quicksilver are used. The mine
has not been working for one year. Thomas M. Logan is president;
H. DeC. Eichards, vice president and general manager; D. F. Hamon,
secretary, and Dred T. Hale, superintendent.
Pearch Mine (hydraulic). Consists of two claims, patented, owned
by P. L. Young and others of Orleans, and located in Sec. 32, T. 11
N., R. 6 E., about 1 mile northeast of the town of Orleans on the
southeast bank of the Klamath River at an elevation of 537 feet.
These claims were located about forty years ago by a man by the name
of Pearch, and the names of the claims are John A. and Eli Pearch.
They are on the Klamath Forest Reserve. There is a good road to the
mine from Orleans. The course of the gravel channel is northeast and
southwest and the gravel is a heavy wash with a little cement gravel.
There are IJ miles of ditch and flume which brings 1000 inches of
water from Pearch Creek under a head of 170 feet. There are two
reservoirs, 1000 feet of 22, 18, and 15-inch pipe, one No. 3 and one
No. 4 giant. Eight hundred feet of sluice with block riffles and quick-
silver are used to save the gold. There are two dwelling houses, a barn,
wagon-house and other small buildings on the property. This mine is
in operation every winter.
Bed Porphyry Mine (hydraulic). Consists of four and one half
claims or 90 acres of unpatented mineral land owned by O. T. Crowe,
B. F. Hiatt and others, and located in the Willow Creek mining dis-
trict in Sec. 17, T. 7 N., R. 5 E., about 2 miles north of the village
of Willow Creek on the west bank of the Trinity River. Claims located
in 1899. A good road from Eureka crosses the mine. The eleva-
tion above sea level is 600 feet. The mine is on the Trinity Forest
Reserve. There are two gravel channels having a north and south
course, one bench being 900 feet long and the other about 1200 feet
long. The bedrock is a black slate. Water is brought from Kirkham
Creek in one mile of ditch and 500 feet of flume ; 500 inches of water,
under 250-foot head, is used; 470 feet of 11-inch pipe and one No. 2
giant are used; 240 feet of sluice and 32 feet of undercurrent, block
riffles and quicksilver are used. There are two buildings and a black-
smith shop on the property. The mine was not worked very extensively
up to 1907, but since then it has been worked every winter. The gold is
fine, assays $18 to $18.25 per ounce and has platinum associated
HUMBOLDT COUNTY. 35
Rocky Point Mine (hydraulic). Consists of three claims of 60 acres
located twenty years ago and unpatented. Owned by William Witt-
more and located in the Orleans mining district in Sec. 21, T. 11 N.,
R. 6 E., at an elevation of 500 feet. There is a wagon road to within
2 miles of the property, which lies 3 miles northeast of Orleans
on the southeast bank of the Klamath River. They are in the Klamath
Forest Reserve. Water is brought from Wittmore Creek by one mile
of ditch and 300 inches of water at 150-foot pressure is delivered to
one No. 2 giant by 600 feet of 9-inch pipe. The bedrock is slate and
serpentine and the bench gravel has a northeast and southwest course.
There are 200 feet of sluice, and block riffles and quicksilver are used
for catching the gold. There is one house on the property. The mine
works during the winter months only.
Bosalina Placer Mine (hydraulic). Consists of two unpatented
claims owned by Lew Nelson and located in T. 11 N., R. 6 E., on the
northwest bank of the Klamath River about eight miles from Orleans
by trail at an altitude of 550 feet. These claims were located about
twenty years ago and are in the Klamath Forest Reserve. There are
two benches of gravel, both having a northeast and southwest course,
and the bedrock is slate. There is ^ of a mile of flume, one large
reservoir and 800 inches of water are brought to the mine under a
400-foot pressure through 200 feet of 21-inch pipe and 300 feet of 15
and 11-inch pipe. Two No. 2 giants are used. Block riffles with under-
current and quicksilver are used for saving the gold. There are one
house, a blacksmith shop, derrick and a barn on the property. The
gold is fine and flaky and assays $17 per ounce. A little platinum
also accompanies the black sands. The mine works only three months
in the winter.
Rough and Ready Pl<icer Mine (hydraulic). Consists of 40 acres
of unpatented mineral placer land, and 80 acres of patented land,
formerly known as the Rough and Ready Placer and the Sarvorum
placer groups, the former owned by A. R. Wilder and the latter owned
by A. R. Wilder, E. F. Wilder, B. H. Wilder, D. Wilder, and N. Wilder.
They are located in Sees. 1, 2, 11 and 12, T. 10 N., R. 5 E., in the
Orleans mining district, 3 miles southwest of Orleans on the south-
east bank of the Klamath River. The Sarvorum group of 80 acres is
patented, while the remaining is unpatented. The Rough and Ready
group was located some time in the sixties and the Sarvorum group was
located in 1894. This property is at an altitude of 500 feet. The
gravel benches have a northeast and southwest course and the bedrock
is slate. Water is brought to the property from Boise Creek and tribu-
taries in 4f miles of ditch and flume, 100 inches being used under
250-foot head. The gravel is medium wash with large boulders on
36 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES.
bedrock. There are 1000 feet of 11, 9, and 7-ineh pipe, one No. 1 giant,
200 feet of sluice boxes, one barn, one small sawmill and several
smaller buildings. The sawmill is run by water power generated by an
undershot wheel. The gold assays $17 to $17.25 per ounce. Small
spots of cemented gravel are found on bedrock. There is about 10 per
cent loss in fine gold. The Rough and Eeady group is about 300 feet
above the river and the Sarvorum is about 60 feet above. The Sar-
vorum is used for ranching purposes now. The Bough and Ready is
worked every winter.
Salstrom Placer Mine (hydraulic). Consists of five claims, none of
which are patented. They are located in Sec. 1, T. 10 N., R. 5 E.,
and Sec. 36, T. 11 N., R. 5 E., IJ miles southeast of the town of Orleans,
on the northwest bank of the Klamath River, at an altitude of 500
feet. They consist of gravel benches. The course of the channel
is east and west. The bedrock is slate and the wash is large with
large boulders on bedrock. The county road runs through the prop-
erty. These claims are owned by Jonas Salstrom of Orleans. The
property is in the Klamath Forest Reserve. Water is brought from
Crawford Creek in f of a mile of flume; 800 inches under 185-foot
pressure is delivered in 1500 feet of 24 and 15-inch pipe to one No. 2
and one No. 3 giant. These claims were located first in 1852 and
relocated in 1890. One claim was located in 1910. Fourteen hundred
feet of sluice boxes are used and block riffles with quicksilver are used
to save the gold. There is a dwelling house, blacksmith shop, tool
house, sawmill and bam on the place. The sawmill is run by water
power. A small amount of platinum accompanies the gold. At the
present time the mine can only work nine weeks during the winter
months, on account of the scarcity of water. The gold is flaky and
assays $17 per ounce.
Thompson Bar (hydraulic). Consists of four unpatented claims
located in the Weitchpec mining district about halfway between Weitch-
pec and Orleans, on the northwest bank of the Klamath River, in Sec.
20, T. 10 N., R. 5 E., at an altitude of 650 feet. They are owned by
William M. Salsbury, who located them in 1907. The county road
passes on the opposite side of the river. The mine consists of bench
gravels on a slate, serpentine and schist bedrock. The course of the
channel is northeast and southwest. The gravel is small wash with
large boulders on bedrock. Water is brought from three small creeks
south of Red Cap Creek in 2^ miles of ditch and flume under 200
feet head. Three hundred inches are used. Hungarian riffles and
quicksilver are used to save the gold. During the last three years no
work in the way of washing has been done on account of the ditch
being carried away frequently by the side hill sliding out. Eighty-four
feet of sluice boxes carry the gravel into the river. The gold is flaky
HUMBOUtT COUNTY. 37
and assays $17 per ounce. No platinum contained in the gravel. There
are 300 feet of 11-inch pipe from the ditch to the No. 2 giant.
Weitchpec Bar Mine (hydraulic). Consists of one unpatented claim
of 20 acres located in the "Weitchpee mining district at the village by
that name in See. 10, T. 9 N., R. 4 E., at an elevation of 640 feet,
and owned by J. C. Gist. The county road runs through the property.
The bench gravels have a northwest and southeast direction and the
bedrock ia an altered schist. The gravel is medium size and loose. Water
is taken from Weitchpec and Ben creeks and the Klamath River, 300
inches being brought to the mine in one mile of flume and ditch and
under 125 feet pressure. There are 250 feet of 15-inch pipe and 1000
feet of 11-inch pipe, three giants, Nos. 1, 2, 3. One derrick for handling
boulders, 250 feet of sluice boxes. Block riffles and quicksilver used to
save the gold. There are a house and a bam on the mine. The gold
is flaky. The mine works every winter and generally closes down
the first of June. There is some platinum in the gravels.
imboldt County, Cilifor
38 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES.
As mentioned under oil, a gas suitable for illuminating and fuel
purposes flows from some of the wells in the oil district of the county.
There are many instances where gas is escaping from oil seepages,
but only in two instances is the gas in sufficient quantity to be useful
for domestic purposes.
Frank 'Peters Gas Well. There are three springs on Frank Peters'
land in the village of Capetown in Sec. 13, T. 1 N., R. 3 W. The gas
is tanked and used in the house for lighting and fuel purposes.
Briceland Estate Gas Well. A gas well is located on this estate
at the town of Briceland in Sec. 18, T. 4 S., R. 3 E. The well is 780
feet deep and has 7f -inch casing. The well is capped and the gas is
drawn off by a 1-inch pipe for lighting the houses of the town of Brice-
land. No storage tank is used, consequently the pressure is rather
low after a few hours' use.
Graphite of an impure quality is found at Otto Rest on the South
Fork of Trinity River on the line of the new state highway, also in T.
10 N., R. 4 E., and a little near the city of Eureka. No development
has been done.
Vivianite (phosphate of iron) is found on Maple Creek and also at
Yager. Hematite boulders in large quantities are found on the ocean
beach 4 miles south of Centerville. Soft red hematite also occurs on
James Creek, 2 miles northeast of Areata. No development is being
carried on with these deposits. ;
At the present writing no mineral water is shipped out of the county,
although arrangements are being made to place the output of a new
spring on the market in the near future. There are not many mineral
springs in Humboldt County. Some years ago a spring was being
used by the Humboldt Mineral Water Company. It was located at
Flannigan 's mill, 2 miles south of Eureka on the edge of the bay, and
owned by the Bayside Lumber Company. The waters were bottled for
local consumption until another firm began to bottle and charge the
city water for local consumption.
HUMBOLDT COUNTY. 39
The waters from the above mentioned spring contained the following
Sodium chloride 32.91
Calcium carbonate 16.37
Magnesium carbonate 10.63
Sodium carbonate 2.45
Iron oxide , .06
Traces of sulphates and organic matter and abundant carbonic acid.
Felt's Springs. These springs are situated on the side of the moun-
tain, 1 mile west of Strongs Creek and 5 J miles northeast of Fortuna,
in T. 3 N., E. 1. E., H. M. There are three sulphur springs close
together, and at one time hotel accommodations could be had at the
Waters contain the following minerals:
Sodium chloride Magnesium chloride
Sodium carbonate Magnesium carbonate
Potassium chloride Manganese
Potassium carbonate Traces of iron
Potassium sulphate Alumina
Calcium carbonate Silica.
lagua Mineral Water. This spring is situated on the water front
of the city of Eureka on the property of the Pacific Oil and Fuel Com-
pany. At one time the mineral water bubbled from the mud flats of
the bay until a bulkhead was put in and the spring piped up to the
level of the wharf. A pump is now used for securing the water and
the spring is visited by many of the residents of the city. The Indians
are supposed to have used the water years ago and the Indian name of
*' lagua," meaning ''Good morning," still clings to it. An analysis
made by Professor William D. Johnson in 1885, gives the following
One U. S. gallon
Sodium chloride _ —
Sodium carbonate _
Magnesium sulphate — .
Ferrous carbonate __ -
Traces of manganese, boracic acid, iodine and lithium.
40 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES.
There is carbonic acid gas in small amounts and the water is satu-
rated with sulphuretted hydrogen. This mineral water is being placed
on the market in San Francisco by George A. Knight, who owns the
Cooks Springs. These springs are situated on North Yager Creek,
35 miles east of Eureka. They are sulphur and iron springs but have
not been exploited.
Mountain View Spring. This spring is situated on Mad River, 28
miles from Eureka, and is a small spring smelling strongly of sulphur-
Yager Creek Springs. They are located on the headwaters of Yager
Creek on the ridge between it and Mad River. No improvements have
been made on the property.
Oil was known by the white man to exist in the southwestern portion
of Humboldt County as early as 1860 and by the Indians even before
this time. Oil was collected from seepages at times and used for sup-
posed medicinal properties that it possessed. After the collapse of
the oil boom in the eastern states in 1861 and 1862, people again began
to make investments in oil. The people of California hoped to find an
oil field in this State similar to that in Pennsylvania. Samples of oil
were collected from the different seepages in the county, an oil boom
started and many locations made. The town of Petrolia was laid out
and times were good for a while. It was very difficult and expensive
to transport supplies and machinery to the oil district, as roads were
few and the steamers made their landing at Eureka and freight had to
be shipped to the oil district by freight teams.
The principal oil field extended from the coast line at Capetown
thence in a southeasterly direction to Garberville, on the south fork of
Eel River, a distance of about 42 miles in length, and from the Rain-
bow ridge on the northeast to the Cooskie range on the southwest, a
distance of 12 miles. This district may be divided into the Bear River
district, which includes Bear River and its tributaries; the second or
Lower Mattole River and lower north fork of Mattole River, and the
third or the Upper Mattole River and upper north fork of Mattole
River. The fourth district embraces the territory in the vicinity of
Briceland and Garberville.
In the vicinity of Briceland the general strike of the formation is
northwest and southeast. In some places the formational series of
metamorphic gray sandstones and shales contain no fossils but are
thought to be of Cretaceous age. In other places a series of sandstones
and shales containing fossils of Neocene age are noted lying non-
HUMBOLDT COUNTY. 41
conformably on the sandstone and shale of Cretaceous age. The
Cretaceous rocks are lying at a fairly steep dip and, in places, carry
petroleum and gas. There are numerous seepages of oil throughout
the district, and oil can be gathered at these places in small quantities.
Gas also is found escaping through the oil and water in these springs.
The oil in the Petrolia district is of a dark green color, while that
of the Briceland district is more reddish in color. Both oils are of a
paraffine and olefine base with a specific gravity (at 64° F.) of 0.8229,
which is equal to 39.8° Baume. It had a flash test of 73° F. and a
fire test of 84° F. and has high burning qualities. The oils contain
a high percentage of paraffine wax and produce a fairly good quality
of lubricating oil and a high grade cylinder oil.
Distillation percentages obtained from Humboldt County oils: 25.1
per cent engine distillate 50° gravity Baume at 60° F. ; 35.2 per cent
water white refined oil with fire test of 123° F. ; 7.75 per cent white
neutral oil at 35.5° gravity Baume at 60° F. ; 29.90 per cent lubricating
oil of 28° gravity Baume at 60° F.
Union Well, Drilling for oil in Humboldt County began in the year
1865 and, according to men familiar with oil development in the county,
the first well was called the Union and was drilled in that year under
the auspices of Hon. L. Stanford. This well was drilled in Sec. 30,
T. 1 S., R. 1 W. (all wells referred to the Humboldt meridian), and
was 500 feet deep. It is reported to have been a 10 to 15-barrel well.
The oil had to be pumped. For the log see the seventh report of the
Brown and Knowles Well. This well is situated in Sec. 24, T. 1 S.,
R. 2 W., on the north fork of the Mattole River. It was drilled to a
depth of 300 feet, but no oil was obtained. No gas or water flowed from
Henderson Well. This well was situated in Sec. 15, T. 1 S., R. 2 W.,
and was drilled to a depth of 500 feet. It was reported as a 10-barrel
well and had to be pumped.
McNutt Gulch Well. Situated in Sec. 30, T. 1 S., R. 1 W., and was
down 300 feet. It was drilled in 1865 and gave only a few barrels.
Burrows Well. This well was situated in Sec. 5, T. 2 S., R. 1 W.,
and was drilled by the Far West Oil Company in 1892 on Buckeye
Creek. At a depth of 500 feet, a flow of 5 barrels was obtained. At
800 feet, the string of tools was lost and the well was abandoned.
Davis Creek Well. This well is situated in Sec. 13, T. 1 S., R. 3 W.,
and was drilled in the year 1893 by the Far West Oil Company. Drill-
ing was continued to 800 feet, at which depth the casing was pulled and
the well abandoned. Whether oil was obtained is not known.
42 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES.
Mackintosh Well. Situated in See. 29, T. 1 S., R. 2 E. It was drilled
Id 1902 to a depth of 1700 feet, and the flow is reported to have been
15 barrels of 45° gravity oil.
Craig Well This well is situated in Sec. 30, T. 1 S., R. 1 W., and
was drilled in 1902 to a depth of 700 feet. Another hole was put down
to a depth of 800 feet, but the results were not satisfactory.
Wild Ooose Wells. These wells are situated in Sec. 15, T. 1 S.,
R. 2 W., and were drilled in 1901 and 1902, one to a depth of 700 feet
and the other to 1033 feet. No oil was obtained in the 700-foot well,
but in the other oil was obtained at a depth of 221 feet. Oil sands 60
feet thick were passed through, and from these the drill passed into
black shale. At 300 feet the water was shut off, and at 400 feet a
small quantity of oil was obtained. The next 40 feet the formation
was limestone, but a thin oil sand was struck at 441 feet. At 555 feet
gas was encountered in large quantities sufficient to throw the string
of tools from the casing. At 775 feet an oil sand yielded a flow of 15
to 20 barrels. At 1033 the string of tools was lost and the well aban-
doned. Water is now flowing from the well.
Humboldt Well. This well is situated in Sec. 6, T. 2 S., R. 1 W.,
and was drilled in 1901 and 1902 to a depth of 2000 feet. The forma-
tion was black shale all the way. Only a trace of oil was found at 1200
feet, and the well was abandoned.
Hoaglin Well. This well is situated in Sec. 2, T. 3 S., R. 1 W.,
and was drilled in 1901 and 1902 by the Mattole Paraffine Company.
It was drilled to a depth somewhere between 1700 and 1800 feet. Some
oil at 1600 feet was obtained but the quantity could not be ascertained.
Reed Well. Located in Sec. 14, T. 1 S., R. 2 W., this well was drilled
in 1901 and 1902 to a depth of 400 feet. Only gas was obtained. The
company leased considerable land but did very little work.
Bear River Oil Wells. One well was drilled in Sec. 12, T. 1 N.,
R 3 W., close to the village of Capetown. Three wells were drilled in
Sec. 16, T. 1 N., R. 2 W. The wells were drilled to a depth of a few
hundred feet, but no oil was obtained, and the works were abandoned.
Briceland Oil and Land Company's Well. This well is situated 5
miles southeast of Garberville and was drilled to a depth of 2100 feet.
Oil sands at 410 feet were encountered carrying a little oil and at 503
feet the drill entered granite. The remaining 1597 feet of* the well
were drilled in the granite formation. The well was abandoned.
There are many seepages of oil throughout the region, occurring at
points of fracture in the formation, some being in the Mattole River
and a number in the creek beds. The oil is light, and no doubt much
of it has evaporated. Not being of an asphalt base, the dark stain is
not so apparent in the discoloration of the sandstone formation at these
points of seepage. On breaking the sandstone, the odor of petroleum
is very noticeable. Considering the broken condition of the sandstone
and shale formations, the amount of oil seeping from the fractures is
very small compared with other oil fields. The oil sands are rather
thin so far as proven. This is also true of the oil-bearing shales of the
The wells drilled heretofore have not been located with any geological
skill. Most of them have been drilled in close proximity to a fracture
in the formation where oil was exuding. In other instances money
CALIFORNIA STATE MINING BUREAU
FMcMhUmillan State Mm«->1 otfi »t
44 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES.
has been wasted in the drilling operations. The instance of a well
being drilled in granite will serve to illustrate this point.
The dip of the formation is mostly to the northeast, but at Brieeland
there is a section of sandstone having a dip to the southwest. A com-
pany is now said to be organizing under the direction of Brieeland
people to drill in this formation. Aside from this, there is at present
no activity in the oil district of the county. Many reasons for the
failure to continue drilling in this field have been advanced, among
them being the withdrawal of the land from sale and holding it ss
mineral land subject to entry as such. Taken together with expensive
transportation and competition with cheap oil from Pennsylvania,
these two causes are said to have been the reasons for quitting in 1867.
However true this may be, it remains to be proven that there are wells
in the district that are capable of producing oil in sufficient quantities
to pay to work them commercially, even under favorable conditions.
So far, only small producing wells have been found.
Bibl.: Report VII, pp. 195-200; VIII, p. 216; X, 207; XI,
pp. 227-232 ; Bull. 19, pp. 161-166 ; Bull. 69, pp. 444-454.
There are deposits of red ochre of good quality near Garberville
and also 8 miles from Ferndale. No development has been done.
MENDOCINO COUNTY. 45
Field Work in October, 1913.
BRICK AND TILE.
Brick and tile were manufactured at one time near the coast at the
town of Mendocino and also at the county seat, Ukiah. Good clay
deposits are available at these places but the demand for the product
was not sufficient to make the business a profitable one, consequently the
yards closed down. All brick and tile are now imported into the
county from San Eafael by way of the California Northwestern Pacific
Lignite is found at several localities in the county, where it usually
occurs in thin seams from a few inches to a foot in thickness. Three
parallel beds of lignite traverse the county in a direction parallel to
the coast line.
The most western bed lies 12 to 25 miles inland from the coast.
There are croppings of this bed at Dooling^s Canyon, Ackerman Creek
near Ukiah, in Walker Valley 4 miles south of Willits, at the head of
Ten Mile River, on Mill Creek and also in Humboldt County. This bed
consists of small seams of coal of good quality but does not occur in
payable quantities. Some of the coal will coke and some has been used
in blacksmiths' forges with success.
The third bed lies 15 to 20 miles still farther inland and contains a
vein of considerable thickness. The principal outcrop occurs on the
middle fork of the Eel River near the mouth of Salt Creek and about
4 miles from the railroad at the forks of South Fork and Middle Fork of
Eel River. This bed of coal has been traced for a distance of 10 miles,
7^ miles being on patented land owned by James Flood and 2^ miles on
patented land owned by W. P. Thomas and associates, of Ukiah. Four
or 5 miles of the croppings have been proved up, and, as far as devel-
oped, the vein appears to average about 16 feet in thickness. The bed
begins in Sec. 9, T. 22 N., R. 13 W., and takes a southeast direction for
10 miles to Sec. 36, T. 21 N., R. 13 W., cutting across the middle fork of
Eel River. The croppings on the river opposite Salt Creek have been
developed to some extent and found to dip 31° northeast. The thick-
ness at this point is 14 feet, with a seam of whitish slate 3 to 6
46 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES.
inches thick near the middle. The section of the formation here shows
the following strata :
Top stratum not exposed.
Blue clay shale weathering to small fragments 2G feet
Coal of good quality and luster 5 feet 6 inches
Soft white slate containing sulphate and carbonate of lime. 3 inches
Coal of dull luster 8 feet
Sticky blue clay containing minute shells 21 feet
Some clay containing oyster shells 1 foot
Soft gray agglomerate containing clay, fragments of serpen-
tine and sandstone 5 feet 6 inches
Soft greenish metamorphic sandstone 30 feet
In a cliff, about 80 feet high which is about 1000 feet up the river,
a hard greenish metamorphic rock is exposed, the strata of which seem
to lie conformably upon the coal. About i mile north from the crop-
pings and about 300 feet above the river several openings in the hill
have been made and a tunnel said to be 400 feet long has been run
on the vein in a direction of N. 10° E. About 50 feet of this tunnel is
still open but the rest has caved. Sixty feet above the mouth of this
tunnel, an incline shaft has been sunk on the dip of the vein to
a depth of 30 feet. This shaft is in coal all the way, being 7 feet high,
with coal exposed in both the roof and floor.
Below the coal bed and to the west of the workings a hard meta-
morphic sandstone is exposed but its position and thickness could
not be judged. A few hundred feet east of these openings, meta-
morphic rock again occurs and rises in the form of a cliff 400' to 500'
high, forming a sentinel rock for the surrounding country. It is
to be noted that the coal occurs in a seam between the beds of highly
metamorphosed rock without itself having undergone any great change
in structure or composition.
Coal also outcrops about 1 mile southeast of the mouth of Salt Creek.
The underlying stratum here is a white colored rock composed of a
mass of broken shells and the strike is south 35° east. Still another
mile up the creek, there is another outcrop on which some prospect
holes have been sunk to prove up the seam. The coal has been traced
northwesterly from the river and the same vein is supposed to extend
into Round Valley. The coal along the Eel Eiver appears to be of the
Cretaceous age, while the coal of Round Valley appears to belong to
the Tertiary period. The Round Valley coal is a bright, glistening
variety with concoidal fracture. It contains little ash and a high per-
centage of carbons and stands transportation well.
The coal along this belt is no doubt a valuable asset to the county
and, now that transportation is within a reasonable distance, it remains
to be seen if it can be mined and put on the market at a sufficiently low
cost to compete with the present coals and petroleum.
Louis Falkenau, State Assay OflSce, Safe Deposit Building, Roam 16, southeast
corner California and Montgomery streets.
No. 14,357. San Francisco, August 2, 1890.
J. L. Flood, Esq.,
Dear Sir: I have made a careful techni<;al analysis of a sample of coal received
from you marked "Eel River Coal Mine, Mendocino County," and a sample marked
"Wellington," with the following results:
7.9 per cent
36.2 per cent
53.5 per cent
0.4 per cent
2 per cent
2.4 per cent
33.45 per cent
58.6 per cent
0.15 per cent
5.4 per cent
The cokes furnished by the two coals (sample of which I hand you with this
report) are the same in appearance, but that of the Eel River coal contains 3.6
per cent of ashes, while that of the Wellington contains 8.4 per cent.
The Eel River coal weighs 81 pounds per cubic foot and in places 24.7 cubic feet
will weigh a ton of 2000 pounds, but to store a ton, about 42 cubic feet will be
As the sample of Eel River coal is, according to your statement, from the surface
exposed to extraneous moisture it is to be assumed that the coal at greater depth
will contain much less moisture. If the Eel River and Wellington are both figured
to dry coal, their carbon compares as follows :
Total carbon __
39.73 per cent
58.19 per cent
97.92 per cent
34.42 per cent
60.04 per cent
94.46 per cent
From the foregoing I consider sample of Eel River coal as equal to the Welling-
ton for domestic use and as fuel for steam boilers.
(Signed) Louis Falkenau.
August 11, 1890.
Analysis of Two Samples of Coal for Geo. R. Wells, Esq.
Volatile carbonaceous matter
6.70 per cent
100.00 per cent
2.55 per cent
62.01 per cent
29.64 per cent
5.80 per cent
100.00 per cent
1.81 per cent
The sulphur ?s present in the form of sulphates of lime.
By the combustion of two samples of coal of 1 pound each, the following
quantities of water were evaporated:
Sample 1. — 13.86 pounds. Sample 2. — 12.8 pounds.
Both samples form a good soft coke.
Thomas Price & Son.
48 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES.
STATE ASSAYEB'S OFFICE.
San Francisco, December 8, 1870.
Analysis of coal from vein running throug-h Eel River to Round Valley :
8. W. Glazier, Esq. (for the company),
Dear Sir: I have made a careful analysis of a specimen of coal received from
you and have arrived at the following results :
Specific gravity _, 1.282
Volatil© combustible substance -— 40.20 per cent
Fixed carbon __ _ _ 49.70 per cent
Moisture '.--— 6.70 per cent
Ashes — 3.00 per cent
Sulphur _ - - - 0.40 per cent
Amount of gas evolved, 37 cubic feet for 10 pounds Avd. of the coal.
The coal bums freely, yields a fire light and compact and sonorous coke, and its
ashes are of a reddish-gray color and do not slag.
The amount of sulphur is so minute that it does not make itself perceptible to the
smell in burning the coal.
L. Falkenau, State Assayer.
Copper mining is dormant. There are several prospects where slight
development has heen done, hut these workings have caved in and are
practically abandoned. Among the prospects that have received some
attention may he mentioned the following;
Eden Valley Copper Mine. This mine is sometimes called the Deep
Hole copper mine and is situated in Sec. 13, T. 20 N., R. 12 W.,
M. D. M., in the Eden Valley mining district at an elevation of 2500
feet. It is owned by W. P. Thomas and associates of Ukiah. There
are two claims, comprising 40 acres, located in 1900.
Three or four small veins from four inches to a foot in thickness
strike northwest — southeast and dip 22° northeast. The veins are
composed of quartz carrying chalcopyrite in one vein and carbonates
in another. The ore averages about 10 per cent copper. The hanging-
wall is a soft slate and the footwall is a quartzite. Two hundred feet
of the vein has been proven on the surface. There is a 40-foot shaft
which cuts three veins. No work has been done for the last seven years.
A cabin, bunkhouse, blacksmith shop, and bam are on the property.
Native Copper Miyie. This is a prospect situated in Lost Valley,
and at one time owned by C. H. Staut of Ukiah. The only work that
has been done consists of trenching. It has been idle for some years.
The native copper is disseminated throughout serpentine which is also
the country rock in this vicinity.
Salinas Copper Mine. This prospect is also in serpentine formation
in Lost Valley and the strike is northwest — southeast, and the dip
65° NE. Some sulphide ore was taken out. It was owned at one
time by C. H. Staut, but has not been worked for some years.
MENDOCINO COUNTY. 49
Bed Buck Mine. This property is an extension of the Salinas mine
and the development work consists of a 35-foot tunnel and a 50-foot
winze from it, all of which has caved and been abandoned.
Bed Mountain Group. This group consists of four claims situated
10 miles southeast of Ukiah on the ridge which divides the waters of
the Eussian River and those of Clear Lake and Cache Creek. There
are two veins, located in 1890 and relocated from time to time. The
formation is serpentine. One claim is developed by an open cut and
a crosscut tunnel. Several small bunches of ore have been found in
the cut showing green carbonates and metallic copper. An adjoining
claim is developed by two shafts, one 100 feet and the other 50 feet
deep. In 1896, carbonate ore was taken out above the 50-foot level in
one shaft, and the shaft was extended to the 100-foot point, but no
ore was exposed, the bottom being in sandstone and clay. From an
incline several tons of low grade ore have been taken out. The former
owners were Huff & Gibson of Ukiah. No work has been done for
Ogle Copper Mine. This mine is situated in Anderson Vallpy mining
district in T. 13 N., R. 12 W., and consists of 2000 acres of patented
land. It joins the Redwood Copper Queen mine on the north. A 16-
foot shaft in the center of the claim exposed carbonate ore. Not enough
work has been done to demonstrate the width of the vein. Gossan
can be traced throi:igh this property for a distance of a mile. Ogle
Brothers of Ornbaun were the former owners.
McOimpsey Mine. Situated in Sees. 13, 17 and 18, T. 13 N.,
R. 12 W. The property comprises eight claims in a serpentine forma-
tion. Considerable copper stain is shown in the open cuts and, in a
few places, red oxide of copper mixed with oxide of iron is seen.
The former owner was C. P. McGimpsey of Ukiah.
Pieta Mine. This prospect consists of only one claim and is located
10 miles northeast of Cloverdale and 4 miles north of the southern
boundary of Mendocino County. There is a 55-foot open cut across
the vein material which strikes east and west. It has not been worked
for years. The ore carries a slight trace of carbonate of copper and
the gangue material is mostly iron oxi(Jes. The walls are serpentine.
The former owners were J. C. Caldwell and associates of Healdsburg,
Bedwood Copper Queen Mine. This property, consisting of 840
acres of patented land, located in Sees. 17 and 20, T. 12 N., R. 13 W.,
M. D. M. It is 25 miles by wagon road from Cloverdale, which is
the nearest railroad station. The country rock is a highly altered
sandstone covered with a thick layer of soil. There is a heavy growth
50 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES.
of timber on the land. Gossan croppings appear at several places.
Development work has shown a mineralized zone 300 feet long, 10 to
40 feet wide and 125 feet deep, carrying kidneys and lenses of sul-
phide ore the size of a man 's fist and larger. The largest kidney found
was 75 feet long and six feet thick. The ore is a heavy iron sulphide
carrying copper up to 8% or 9% and small values in gold and silve?.
During the year 1906, 400 tons of ore were shipped to the Peyton
Chemical Company plant for treatment. Its high sulphur content and
the absence of arsenic made it desirable for the manufacture of sul-
phuric acid. The company is a San Francisco corporation of which
E. R. Leach is president, and Claude Mellersh, secretary.
There is a deposit of chrome iron in Sec. 24, T. 15 N., R. 13 W.,
M. D. M., about one and one half miles west of Ukiah. Very little work
has been done to develop this deposit.
Chrome iron has also been found 12 miles north of Willits.
There is no mining for gold in Mendocino County at the present
time. In former years there was some development work being done
on the Boy Edgar and Van Allen mines but only the ever-present
legends remain telling of good values and lost mii^es.
Boy Edgar Mine. This mine was worked some years ago by the
owjier, C. H. Staut of Ukiah, and is reported to have been rich in free
gold. The ledge was lost and hunted for by prospectors but has never
been found. It was supposed to be located somewhere on the trail
from Ukiah to Lost Valley. C. H. Staut, the former owner, died
several years ago.
Van Allen Mine. This property is situated 6 miles west of Ukiah
at an altitude of one thousand feet. There are two claims named ** Car-
rie" and *'Fred.'' The strike of the formation is northwest and
southeast and the dip 20° NE. There are five prospect tunnels. The
one in which the last work was done is a crosscut tunnel 170 feet
long. This tunnel has cut several stringers of quartz in a hard, tough
blue glaucophane schist. Only assessment work is being done. Prop-
erty is owned by William Van Allen of Ukiah.
There were several other prospects mentioned in the Thirteenth
Report of the State Mineralogist. These, however, were merely loca-
tions and the assessment work lapsed soon after the locations were
made, so they are not mentioned here.
MENDOCINO COUNTY. 51
There is a manganese deposit of considerable magnitude located in
Sees. 22, 27, 34 and 35, T. 17 N., R. 12 W., M. D. M. Eight claims
were located by W. P. Thomas, Requa, Taylor, and others in 1912.
The vein is in quartzose schist and the strike is northwest and south-
east and the dip 75° to 80° NE. The width varies from 3 feet to
20 feet. In 1912, one thousand dollars was expended in developing
the claims and some work has been done every year on the property.
Four hundred to 500 feet of the vein has been stripped and crosscut
trenches have been cut for several hundred feet more.
The claims are 3 miles from the railroad and a wagon road passes
within a mile and a half of it. The ore is of a high quality as will be
seen from the accompanying analyses and no doubt will prove a valu-
able asset to the county at some future time.
Cleveland Property. It is situated 3 or 4 miles from the Thomas
property in T. 17 N., R. 12 W., and on the same lode. The ore is a
pyrolusite. No work is being done on the claims.
Manganese Assays From Property of W. P. Thomas.
Assay by John Crawford, chemist, for Noble Electric Steel Com-
pany, April 4, 1912 :
Metallic manganese 52.24%
Assay by Abbott A. Hanks, San Francisco, February 21, 1912 :
Metallic manganese 54.07%
Assay by Abbott A. Hanks, December 22, 1911:
Metallic manganese 56.23%
Assay by Abbott A. Hanks, August 6, 1912 :
Metallic manganese 56.67%
Assay made by Geo. A. James Company, June 22, 1912:
Metallic manganese '. 52.1%
Dioxide (with water removed) 91.2%
Assay by Geo. A. James Company, 28 Belden place, San Francisco,
June 24, 1912 :
Metallic manganese 54.9%
Dioxide (with water removed) 92. %
52 MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES.
There are croppings of magnesite in Mendocino County, but they
have not been developed. They occur in serpentine formation like
most of the other magnesite deposits of California.
Vassar Magnesite Claims. These claims are located 12 miles north
of Cloverdale in the southeastern part of the county and within 1^
miles of the California Northwestern Railroad. These croppings are
in serpentine and are owned by James Vassar, who owns 1000 acres
of ranch land on which the croppings occur. No development has been
done. There is another cropping of magnesite in Mendocino County
near the northern boundary of Sonoma County.
There are several mineral springs in Mendocino County, having
waters of medicinal properties, as well as some that are palatable as
table waters. Some of the springs have well appointed accommoda-
tions for guests with excellent transportation equipment for visitors
making use of them during the summer months. Some of these waters
compare favorably with the famous waters of European resorts, as
will be seen from the comparison of their analyses. The climatic condi-
tions are unsurpassed and the scenery equally as beautiful as at other
springs of the world.
Vichy Springs. These famous springs are located 3 miles easterly
from Ukiah, in Sec. 15, T. 15 N., R. 12 W., and are reached by
railroad from San Francisco to Ukiah, and thence by stage to the
The waters belong to the alkalo-carbonated class, are clear and
sparkling and of an agreeable pungent taste. Their chemical com-
position and action on the human body are almost identical with the
noted Ems on the Lahn, and Fachingen of Nassau, Germany, also
Vichy of Grand Grille, France.
It will be observed from a chemical analysis made of these waters
that they are heavily charged with carbonic acid gas and carbonates,
and that they contain some iron and potassium salts.
of Vichy Springs.
Solid ingredients in one gallon of 231 inches in grains
Modfnm cftrhnnate ^ , .. ...
Rndiiim gnlnhato „ .. ..,. ,,. .....
Magnesium carbonate _
■RHTfnTn carbon nt« ....
Carbonic acid gas
California Seltzer Springs. These springs are located in the coast
range of mountains in southern Mendocino County, twelve miles north
of Cloverdale, Sonoma County. There is a hotel on the property. The
waters are carbonated and sparkling, and are quite palatable. An
analysis by Winslow Anderson, M.D., gives the following:
per TT. S.
Sodium bicarbonate .
Calcium carbonate _-
Ferrous carbonate __
Free carbonic acid gas, 18.00 cubic inches.
Orr's Mineral Springs. These springs are situated 15 miles north-
west of Ukiah, on the headwaters of Big River, in Sec. 24, T. 16 N.,
R. 14 W., at an altitude of 1000 feet. They are reached by rail from
San Francisco to Ukiah, thence by stage to the springs. The hot
sulphur baths are well known. Springs for drinking and bathing pur-
poses occur, varying in temperature from cold to 107° F.
MINES AND MINERAL RESOURCES.
Reported Analysis of Orr's Mineral Water.
per U. S.
Silicate of soda
Oxide of lime
Oarbonate of lime
Sodium chloride _.
There are three springs called the **Cold Sulphur," **Hot Sulphur,"
and **Iron Spring." The **Hot Sulphur" water has a temperature of
Duncan Springs. The springs are located 1^ miles southwest from
Hopland Station, in Sec. 25, T. 13 N., R. 12 W. Hopland is on the
California and Northwestern Railroad and stages connect with trains.
There are five cold springs on the property, two of which are soda, and
one a sulphur spring. The other two are called the ** Borax" and
** Duncan" springs, the latter being the principal one. The water from
this spring is claimed to be similar to the celebrated Bartlett Springs.
Reported Analysis of Duncan Springs.
Bicarbonate of magnesia
Chloride of magnesia
Sulphate of magnesia
Bicarbonate of lime
Bicarbonate of potash. __
Bicarbonate of soda
Free carbonic acid
Garhy's Springs. These small alkali springs are situated at the base
of the foothills, one mile west of Ukiah.
Lane's Springs. These are located in Redwood Valley near Calpella.
The w^aters have an alkaline but pleasant taste.
Some drilling for oil was conducted in the county during the oil
excitement in the years 1865, 1866, 1867, but no oil in paying quantities
was obtained. The oil was of excellent quality. Experiments were
made with the bituminous sandstones to see if oil could be distilled
from them in payable quantities. The experiments yielded a fair per-
centage of oil but the cost of production and freight to the consumer
was too high to be a profitable venture.
MENDOCINO CX)UNTY. 55
These bituminous sandstones have been developed, mostly in the
neighborhood of Point Arena. The beds in that region are 20 feet thick
and yield from 10% to 11% volatile matter. Picked specimens run as
high as 15% in volatile matter, but the bituminous sandstones as a
whole are not sufficiently impregnated with petroleum to compete with
other deposits of the State.
There are no quarries operating in the county at the present time.
The best quality of road metal being used in Mendocino comes from
Petaluma, Sonoma County, The metamorphic rocks of the county are
not suitable for road building.
Allen mine 31
Alta California mine_- 12
Aluminum plates, use of, in plat-
inum recovery 7
Analysis of coal from Mendocino
County 47, 48
of Humboldt Bay cement 23
of limestone from Jacoby Creek 24
of manganese ore 51
of mineral water 39, 53, 54
Anderson, Dr. Winslow 53
Areata, coal near 29
Assay value of placer gold 18, 31-37
Auriferous gravels 3
Aurora hydraulic mine 17
Bayside Lumber Co 23, 38
Beach sands, gold and platinum in
5. 7, 21
Bear River oil wells 42
Bituminous sandstones 43, 55
Black Diamond mine 19
sands, gold in _4, 5, 21
in Del Norte County 5-9
in Humboldt County 21
platinum in 4, 5, 21
Bondo mine — _ 31
Bonneville quartz mine 30
Boy Edgar mine 50
Briceland Estate gas well 37, 38
oil near 40
Oil and Land Co. wells 42
Brick and tile 21, 22, 46
Britton No. 1 and No. 2 claims 15
Brown & Knowles oil well 41
Burrows oil well . . 41
Building materials in Dal Norte
in Humboldt County 21-24
in Mendocino County 45
California Seltzer springs 53
Vichy springs (see Vichy)
Cavanaugh mine 32
Christensen hydraulic mine 18
Chrome iron in Del Norte County 10
in Mendocino County 50
Clays 9, 10, 21, 22, 45
Cleopatra copper claims 14
Clover Flat placer mine 32
Coal in Del Norte County 10
in Humboldt County 29-30
in Mendocino County 45-48
Cook placer mine 18
Cook's springs 40
Copper in Del Norte County--3, 4, 10-16
in Humboldt County 4, 24-29
in Mendocino County 4, 48-.'>0
Craig oil well 44
Crimson group 26, 29
Crook placer mine 18
Croton Bar mine (see Bondo)
Dave Savoy placer mine : 17
Davis Creek oil well 41
Deep Hole mine (see Eden Valley)
Del Norte County 3-20
black sands in 5-9
building materials in 9
chrome iron in 10
clay in 9-10
coal in 10
copper in 4, 10-16
Diamond Creek District in 14
French Hill District in :. 15
geology of 3-5
gold in 16-20
gold placers in 16-19
gold quartz in 19-20
iridium in 9
osmium in , 9
platinum in 4, 5, 7, 9, 17, 18
pottery clay in 10
quicksilver in 20
sandstone in . • 9
Distillation percentages obtained
from Humboldt County oils 41
Doctor Rock group 11, 16
Young hydraulic mine 17
Duncan springs 54
East Fork group (see Oak Flat)
Eden Valley copper mine 48
Edwards, Frank B., prospect 16
Eel River coal mine 47
coal on 29, 45, 46, 48
Elkhorn hydraulic mine 17
Ems spring, Germany, analysis of_ 53
Eureka Brick and Tile Co 21, 22
Fachingen spring, Germany, analy-
sis of 53
Far West Oil Co 41
Felt's springs 39
Florence placer mine 32
Fortuna brickyard 21
Frank Zaar copper mine 13
French Hill chrome mines 10
district 15, 16
placer mine 17
platinum in 5, 17
Garberville, coal near 29
oil near 40
Garby's springs 54
Geologic description of Del Norte^
Humboldt and Mendocino counties 3-5